TypeScript icon, indicating that this package has built-in type declarations

0.1.48 • Public • Published


A collection of useful code to complement the official packages.

Table of contents:

Custom Functions

Build your own customized versions of query, mutation, and action that define custom behavior, allowing you to:

  • Run authentication logic before the request starts.
  • Look up commonly used data and add it to the ctx argument.
  • Replace a ctx or argument field with a different value, such as a version of db that runs custom functions on data access.
  • Consume arguments from the client that are not passed to the action, such as taking in an authentication parameter like an API key or session ID. These arguments must be sent up by the client along with each request.

See the associated Stack Post

For example:

import { customQuery } from "convex-helpers/server/customFunctions.js";

const myQueryBuilder = customQuery(query, {
  args: { apiToken:"api_tokens") },
  input: async (ctx, args) => {
    const apiUser = await getApiUser(args.apiToken);
    const db = wrapDatabaseReader({ apiUser }, ctx.db, rlsRules);
    return { ctx: { db, apiUser }, args: {} };

// Use the custom builder everywhere you would have used `query`
export const getSomeData = myQueryBuilder({
  args: { someArg: v.string() },
  handler: async (ctx, args) => {
    const { db, apiUser, scheduler } = ctx;
    const { someArg } = args;
    // ...

Relationship helpers

Traverse database relationships without all the query boilerplate.

See the Stack post on relationship helpers and the relationship schema structures post.


import {
} from "convex-helpers/server/relationships.js";
import { asyncMap } from "convex-helpers";

const author = await getOneFromOrThrow(db, "authors", "userId", user._id);
const posts = await asyncMap(
  // one-to-many
  await getManyFrom(db, "posts", "authorId", author._id),
  async (post) => {
    // one-to-many
    const comments = await getManyFrom(db, "comments", "postId", post._id);
    // many-to-many via join table
    const categories = await getManyViaOrThrow(
    return {, comments, categories };

Action retries

Use helper functions to retry a Convex action until it succeeds. An action should only be retried if it is safe to do so, i.e., if it's idempotent or doesn't have any unsafe side effects.

See the Stack post on retrying actions


 // in convex/utils.ts
 import { makeActionRetrier } from "convex-helpers/server/retries";

 export const { runWithRetries, retry } = makeActionRetrier("utils:retry");

 // in a mutation or action
 export const myMutation = mutation({
   args: {...},
   handler: async (ctx, args) => {
     await runWithRetries(ctx, internal.myModule.myAction, { arg1: 123 });

Stateful migrations

A helper to define and run migrations. You can persist the migration state to a table so you can query the status, or use it without persistence.

See the Stack post on migrations and the migration primer Stack post.

In convex/schema.ts (if you want persistence):

// In convex/schema.ts
import { migrationsTable } from "convex-helpers/server/migrations";
export default defineSchema({
  migrations: migrationsTable,
  // other tables...

In convex/migrations.ts (or wherever you want to define them):

import { makeMigration } from "convex-helpers/server/migrations";
import { internalMutation } from "./_generated/server";

const migration = makeMigration(internalMutation, {
  migrationTable: "migrations",

export const myMigration = migration({
  table: "users",
  migrateOne: async (ctx, doc) => {
    await ctx.db.patch(doc._id, { newField: "value" });

To run from the CLI / dashboard: You can run this manually from the CLI or dashboard:

# Start or resume a migration. No-ops if it's already done:
npx convex run migrations:myMigration '{fn: "migrations:myMigration"}'

Or call it directly within a function:

import { startMigration } from "convex-helpers/server/migrations";

//... within a mutation or action
await startMigration(ctx, internal.migrations.myMigration, {
  startCursor: null, // optional override
  batchSize: 10, // optional override

Or define many to run in series (skips already completed migrations / rows):

import { startMigrationsSerially } from "convex-helpers/server/migrations";
import { internalMutation } from "./_generated/server";

export default internalMutation(async (ctx) => {
  await startMigrationsSerially(ctx, [

If this default export is in convex/migrations.ts you can run:

npx convex run migrations --prod

Rate limiting

Configure and use rate limits to avoid product abuse. See the associated Stack post for details:

import { defineRateLimits } from "convex-helpers/server/rateLimit";

const SECOND = 1000; // ms
const MINUTE = 60 * SECOND;
const HOUR = 60 * MINUTE;
const DAY = 24 * HOUR;

export const { checkRateLimit, rateLimit, resetRateLimit } = defineRateLimits({
  // A per-user limit, allowing one every ~6 seconds.
  // Allows up to 3 in quick succession if they haven't sent many recently.
  sendMessage: { kind: "token bucket", rate: 10, period: MINUTE, capacity: 3 },
  // One global / singleton rate limit
  freeTrialSignUp: { kind: "fixed window", rate: 100, period: HOUR },

And add the rate limit table to your schema:

// in convex/schema.ts
import { rateLimitTables } from "./rateLimit.js";

export default defineSchema({
  otherTable: defineTable({}),
  // other tables

If you don't care about centralizing the configuration and type safety on the rate limit names, you don't have to use defineRateLimits, and can inline the config:

import { checkRateLimit, rateLimit, resetRateLimit } from "./rateLimit.js";

await rateLimit(ctx, {
  name: "callLLM",
  count: numTokens,
  config: { kind: "fixed window", rate: 40000, period: DAY },

You also don't have to define all of your rate limits in one place. You can use defineRateLimits multiple times.


The token bucket approach provides guarantees for overall consumption via the rate per period at which tokens are added, while also allowing unused tokens to accumulate (like "rollover" minutes) up to some capacity value. So if you could normally send 10 per minute, with a capacity of 20, then every two minutes you could send 20, or if in the last two minutes you only sent 5, you can send 15 now.

The fixed window approach differs in that the tokens are granted all at once, every period milliseconds. It similarly allows accumulating "rollover" tokens up to a capacity (defaults to the rate for both rate limit strategies).

Reserving capacity:

You can also allow it to "reserve" capacity to avoid starvation on larger requests. Details in the Stack post.

To use a simple global rate limit:

const { ok, retryAt } = await rateLimit(ctx, { name: "freeTrialSignUp" });
  • ok is whether it successfully consumed the resource
  • retryAt is when it would have succeeded in the future.

Note: If you have many clients using the retryAt to decide when to retry, defend against a thundering herd by adding some jitter. Or use the reserved functionality discussed in the Stack post.

To use a per-user rate limit:

await rateLimit(ctx, {
  name: "createEvent",
  key: userId,
  count: 5,
  throws: true,
  • key is a rate limit specific to some user / team / session ID / etc.
  • count is how many to consume (default is 1)
  • throws configures it to throw a ConvexError with RateLimitError data instead of returning when ok is false.

Read more in the Stack post.

Session tracking via client-side sessionID storage

Store a session ID on the client and pass it up with requests to keep track of a user, even if they aren't logged in.

Use the client-side helpers in react/sessions and server-side helpers in server/sessions.

See the associated Stack post for more information.

Example for a query (action & mutation are similar):

In your React's root, add the SessionProvider:

import { SessionProvider } from "convex-helpers/react/sessions";
<ConvexProvider client={convex}>
    <App />

Pass the session ID from the client automatically to a server query:

import { useSessionQuery } from "convex-helpers/react/sessions";

const results = useSessionQuery(api.myModule.mySessionQuery, { arg1: 1 });

Define a server query function in convex/myModule.ts:

export const mySessionQuery = queryWithSession({
  args: { arg1: v.number() },
  handler: async (ctx, args) => {
    // ctx.anonymousUser

Using customQuery to make queryWithSession:

import { customQuery } from "convex-helpers/server/customFunctions";
import { SessionIdArg } from "convex-helpers/server/sessions";

export const queryWithSession = customQuery(query, {
  args: SessionIdArg,
  input: async (ctx, { sessionId }) => {
    const anonymousUser = await getAnonUser(ctx, sessionId);
    return { ctx: { ...ctx, anonymousUser }, args: {} };

Note: getAnonUser is some function you write to look up a user by session.

Richer useQuery

Use in place of useQuery from "convex/react" to fetch data from a query, with a richer return value.

By default, useQuery will throw an error when the server throws. It also returns undefined to indicate a "loading" state. This helper returns:

import { makeUseQueryWithStatus } from "convex-helpers/react";
import { useQueries } from "convex/react";
// Do this once somewhere, name it whatever you want.
export const useQueryWithStatus = makeUseQueryWithStatus(useQueries);

const { status, data, error, isSuccess, isPending, isError } =
  useQueryWithStatus(, { myArg: 123 });

The types of the return is:

type ret =
  | {
      status: "success";
      data: FunctionReturnType<Query>;
      error: undefined;
      isSuccess: true;
      isPending: false;
      isError: false;
  | {
      status: "pending";
      data: undefined;
      error: undefined;
      isSuccess: false;
      isPending: true;
      isError: false;
  | {
      status: "error";
      data: undefined;
      error: Error;
      isSuccess: false;
      isPending: false;
      isError: true;

Row-level security

See the Stack post on row-level security

Use the RowLevelSecurity helper to define withQueryRLS and withMutationRLS wrappers to add row-level checks for a server-side function. Any access to db inside functions wrapped with these will check your access rules on read/insert/modify per-document.

Zod Validation

Convex has argument validation, but if you prefer the Zod features for validating arguments, this is for you!

See the Stack post on Zod validation to see how to validate your Convex functions using the zod library.


import { z } from "zod";
import { zCustomQuery, zid } from "convex-helpers/server/zod";
import { NoOp } from "convex-helpers/server/customFunctions";

// Define this once - and customize like you would customQuery
const zodQuery = zCustomQuery(query, NoOp);

export const myComplexQuery = zodQuery({
  args: {
    userId: zid("users"),
    email: z.string().email(),
    num: z.number().min(0),
    nullableBigint: z.nullable(z.bigint()),
    boolWithDefault: z.boolean().default(true),
    null: z.null(),
    array: z.array(z.string()),
    optionalObject: z.object({ a: z.string(), b: z.number() }).optional(),
    union: z.union([z.string(), z.number()]),
    discriminatedUnion: z.discriminatedUnion("kind", [
      z.object({ kind: z.literal("a"), a: z.string() }),
      z.object({ kind: z.literal("b"), b: z.number() }),
    literal: z.literal("hi"),
    enum: z.enum(["a", "b"]),
    readonly: z.object({ a: z.string(), b: z.number() }).readonly(),
    pipeline: z.number().pipe(z.coerce.string()),
  handler: async (ctx, args) => {
    //... args at this point has been validated and has the types of what
    // zod parses the values into.
    // e.g. boolWithDefault is `bool` but has an input type `bool | undefined`.

Hono for advanced HTTP endpoint definitions

Hono is an optimized web framework you can use to define HTTP api endpoints easily (httpAction in Convex).

See the guide on Stack for tips on using Hono for HTTP endpoints.

To use it, put this in your convex/http.ts file:

import { Hono } from "hono";
import { HonoWithConvex, HttpRouterWithHono } from "convex-helpers/server/hono";
import { ActionCtx } from "./_generated/server";

const app: HonoWithConvex<ActionCtx> = new Hono();

// See the [guide on Stack](
// for tips on using Hono for HTTP endpoints.
app.get("/", async (c) => {
  return c.json("Hello world!");

export default new HttpRouterWithHono(app);

CRUD utilities

To generate a basic CRUD api for your tables, you can use this helper to define these functions for a given table:

  • create
  • read
  • update
  • delete
  • paginate

Note: I recommend only doing this for prototyping or internal functions


// in convex/users.ts
import { crud } from "convex-helpers/server";
import { internalMutation, internalQuery } from "../convex/_generated/server";

const Users = Table("users", {...});

export const { read, update } = crud(Users, internalQuery, internalMutation);

// in convex/schema.ts
import { Users } from "./users";
export default defineSchema({users: Users.table});

// in some file, in an action:
const user = await ctx.runQuery(, { id: userId });

await ctx.runMutation(internal.users.update, { status: "inactive" });

Validator utilities

When using validators for defining database schema or function arguments, these validators help:

  1. Add a Table utility that defines a table and keeps references to the fields to avoid re-defining validators. To learn more about sharing validators, read this article, an extension of this article.
  2. Add utilties for partial, pick and omit to match the TypeScript type utilities.
  3. Add shorthand for a union of literals, a nullable field, a deprecated field, and brandedString. To learn more about branded strings see this article.
  4. Make the validators look more like TypeScript types, even though they're runtime values. (This is controvercial and not required to use the above).


import { Table } from "convex-helpers/server";
import {
} from "convex-helpers/validators";
import { omit, pick } from "convex-helpers";
import { Infer } from "convex/values";

// Define a validator that requires an Email string type.
export const emailValidator = brandedString("email");
// Define the Email type based on the branded string.
export type Email = Infer<typeof emailValidator>;

export const Account = Table("accounts", {
  balance: nullable(v.bigint()),
  status: literals("active", "inactive"),
  email: emailValidator,

  oldField: deprecated,

// convex/schema.ts
export default defineSchema({
  accounts: Account.table.index("status", ["status"]),

// some module
export const replaceUser = internalMutation({
  args: {
    id: Account._id,
    replace: object({
      // You can provide the document with or without system fields.
  handler: async (ctx, args) => {
    await ctx.db.replace(, args.replace);

// A validator just for balance & email: { balance: v.union(...), email: ..}
const balanceAndEmail = pick(Account.withoutSystemFields, ["balance", "email"]);

// A validator for all the fields except balance.
const accountWithoutBalance = omit(Account.withSystemFields, ["balance"]);


See the guide on Stack for an analysis of complex filters on Convex.

The filter helper composes with ctx.db.query to apply arbitrary TypeScript or JavaScript filters to a database query.


import { filter } from "convex-helpers/server/filter";

export const evens = query({
  args: {},
  handler: async (ctx) => {
    return await filter(
      (c) => c.counter % 2 === 0,

export const lastCountLongerThanName = query({
  args: {},
  handler: async (ctx) => {
    return await filter(
      (c) => c.counter >,

Manual Pagination

Note Convex provides built-in pagination through .paginate() and usePaginatedQuery().

The getPage helper gives you more control of the pagination. You can specify the index ranges or do multiple paginations in the same query. An index range is all of the documents between two index keys: (start, end]. An index key is an array of values for the fields in the specified index. For example, for an index defined like defineTable({ a: v.number(), b: v.string() }).index("my_index", ["a", "b"]) an index key might be [ 3 ] or [ 3, "abc" ]. By default the index is the built-in "by_creation_time" index. The returned index keys are unique, including the two fields at the end of every index: _creationTime and _id.

However, you have to handle edge cases yourself, as described in

More details and patterns will appear in upcoming articles.


Fetch the first page, by creation time:

const { page, indexKeys, hasMore } = await getPage(ctx, {
  table: "messages",

Fetch the next page:

const {
  page: page2,
  indexKeys: indexKeys2,
  hasMore: hasMore2,
} = await getPage(ctx, {
  table: "messages",
  startIndexKey: indexKeys[indexKeys.length - 1],

You can change the page size and order by any index:

import schema from "./schema";
const { page, indexKeys, hasMore } = await getPage(ctx, {
  table: "users",
  index: "by_name",
  targetMaxRows: 1000,

Fetch of a page between two fixed places in the index, allowing you to display continuous pages even as documents change.

const { page } = await getPage(ctx, {
  table: "messages",

Fetch starting at a given index key. For example, here are yesterday's messages, with recent at the top:

const { page, indexKeys, hasMore } = await getPage(ctx, {
  table: "messages",
  startIndexKey: [ - 24 * 60 * 60 * 1000],
  startInclusive: true,
  order: "desc",

Query Caching

Utilize a query cache implementation which persists subscriptions to the server for some expiration period even after app useQuery hooks have all unmounted. This allows very fast reloading of unevicted values during navigation changes, view changes, etc.

Related files:

  • provider.tsx contains ConvexQueryCacheProvider, a configurable cache provider you put in your react app's root.
  • hooks.ts contains cache-enabled drop-in replacements for both useQuery and useQueries from convex/react.

To use the cache, first make sure to put a <ConvexQueryCacheProvider> inside <ConvexProvider> in your react component tree:

import { ConvexQueryCacheProvider } from "convex-helpers/react/cache/provider";


export default function RootLayout({
}: Readonly<{
  children: React.ReactNode;
}>) {
  return (
    <html lang="en">
      <body className={inter.className}>

This provider takes three optional props:

  • expiration (number) -- Milliseconds to preserve unmounted subscriptions in the cache. After this, the subscriptions will be dropped, and the value will have to be re-fetched from the server. (Default: 300000, aka 5 minutes)
  • maxIdleEntires (number) -- Maximum number of unused subscriptions kept in the cache. (Default: 250).
  • debug (boolean) -- Dump console logs every 3s to debug the state of the cache (Default: false).

Finally, you can utilize useQuery (and useQueries) just the same as their convex/react equivalents.

import { useQuery } from "convex-helpers/react/cache/hooks";

// ...

const users = useQuery(api.users.getAll);



Package Sidebar


npm i convex-helpers

Weekly Downloads






Unpacked Size

590 kB

Total Files


Last publish


  • xixixao
  • ballingt
  • sshader
  • ianatconvex