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    cds-dbm (Core Data Services – Database Migrations)

    cds-dbm is a package that extends the database tooling capabilities of the SAP Cloud Application Programming Model's Node.js Service SDK (@sap/cds) for relational databases other than the native supported ones (SAP HANA and SQLite).

    The library offers a set of command line tasks related to deploying a cds data model to the database:

    It also contains a sap/@cds builder task to create ready-to-deploy build fragments for SAP Business Technology Platform (BTP) Cloud Foundry:

    Current status

    cds-dbm is ready to be used!
    The library contains all the necessary commands and functionality to build a cds model for and deploy it to the supported databases.

    Database support

    Internally cds-dbm is relying on the popular Java framework liquibase to handle (most) of the database activities. Liquibase by default has support for a variety of relational databases, but currently cds-dbm offers support for the following ones:

    • PostgreSQL (in combination with the cds-pg database adapter)

    Support for other databases is planned whenever a corresponding CDS adapter library is available.

    There are some example apps already using cds-dbm in combination with cds-pg:

    There are also some blogposts in the SAP Community showcasing the functionality of cds-dbm:

    Why does cds-dbm (currently) not support SAP HANA?

    As SAP HANA is a first class citizen in CAP, SAP offers its own deployment solution (@sap/hdi-deploy). With CAP it is possible to directly compile a data model into SAP HANA fragments (.hdbtable, etc.), which can then be deployed by the hdi-deploy module taking care of all the important stuff (delta handling, hdi-management on XSA or SAP BTP, etc.).
    Nevertheless it may be suitable to use the liquibase-hanadb adapter to add an alternative deployment solution. If so, support might be added in the future.

    How to use


    Since the project uses liquibase internally, a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) in at least version 8 is required on your system.

    Usage in your CAP project

    Simply add this package to your CAP project by running:

    npm install cds-dbm

    cds-dbm requires some additional configuration added to your package.json:

      "cds": {
        "migrations": {
          "db": {
            "schema": {
              "default": "public",
              "clone": "_cdsdbm_clone",
              "reference": "_cdsdbm_ref"
            "deploy": {
              "tmpFile": "tmp/_autodeploy.json",
              "undeployFile": "db/undeploy.json"

    Internally cds-dbm uses 3 different schemas during deployment:

    • default – The schema containing your currently deployed and thus running schema
    • clone – A schema that will be a clone of the default schema during deployment
    • reference – The schema that will contain the CDS model

    Automated delta deployments

    TODO: Add full description

    In the meantime some notes on the delta processing:

    1. Clone current db schema cds.migrations.db.schema.default into cds.migrations.db.schema.clone.
    2. Drop all CDS based views from clone schema because updates on views do not work in the way liquibase is handling this via CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW (
    3. Deploy the full CDS model to the reference schema cds.migrations.db.schema.reference.
    4. Let liquibase create a diff between the clone and reference schema (including the recreation of the dropped views).
    5. Do some adjustments on the changelog (handle undeployment stuff, fix order of things).
    6. Finally deploy changelog to current schema.
    7. Load data from .csv files (if requested).

    Dropping tables/views

    cds-dbm follows a safe approach and does not drop any database tables during deployment. Thus, old tables will still be around even if they are not part of your data model anymore.

    You can either remove them manually or rely on cds-dbm to handle this for you.

    Undeployment file

    An undeployment file makes it possible to specifically list views and tables that should be dropped from the database schema during the deployment.

    The undeployment file's path needs to be specified in the package.json configuration (cds.migrations.deploy.undeployFile):

    # An example undeploy.json:
        "views": [],
        "tables": [

    auto-undeployment option

    While an undeploy.json file gives you fine grained control, it is also possible to automatically remove tables/views from the database schema. When using the auto-undeploy flag during deployment, cds-dbm will take the cds model as the reference and remove all other existing tables/views.


    The following commands exists for working with cds-dbm in the automated delta deployment mode:

    Currently tall tasks must be called with npx

    npx cds-dbm <task>


    Performs a delta deployment of the current cds data model to the database. By default no csv files are loaded. If this is required, the load strategy has to be defined (load-via).


    cds-dbm deploy


    • create-db (boolean) - If set, the deploy task tries to create the database before actually deploying the data model. The deployment will not break, if the database has already been created before.
    • auto-undeploy (boolean) - WARNING: Drops all tables not known to your data model from the database. This should only be used if your cds includes all tables/views in your db (schema). Otherwise it is highly recommended to use an undeployment file.
    • load-via (string) - Can be either full (truncate and insert) or delta (check for existing records, then update or insert)
    • dry (boolean) - Does not apply the SQL to the database but logs it to stdout


    cds-dbm deploy
    cds-dbm deploy --create-db
    cds-dbm deploy --load-via delta
    cds-dbm deploy --auto-undeploy
    cds-dbm deploy --auto-undeploy --dry


    Loads data from CSV files into the database. The following conventions apply (according to the default @sap/cds conventions at

    • The files must be located in folders db/csv, db/data/, or db/src/csv.
    • They contain data for one entity each. File names must follow the pattern -.csv, for example, my.bookshop-Books.csv.
    • They must start with a header line that lists the needed element names.

    Different to the default mechanism in @sap/cds (which supports only full loads), cds_dbm offers two loading strategies:

    • full – Truncates a table and then inserts all the data from the CSV file
    • delta – Checks, if an existing record with the same key exists and performs an update. All other records in the table will be left untouched.


    cds-dbm load --via full
    cds-dbm load --via delta


    • via (string) - Can be either full (truncate and insert) or delta (check for existing records, then update or insert)


    Drops all tables and views in your data model from the database. If the all parameter is given, then everything in the whole schema will be dropped, not only the cds specific entities.


    cds-dbm drop


    • all (boolean) - If set, the whole content of the database/schema is being dropped.


    cds-dbm drop
    cds-dbm drop --all


    Generates a descriptive text containing all the differences between the defined cds model and the current status of the database. By default, the information will be logged to the console.


    cds-dbm diff


    • to-file (string) - If set, the diff information will be written into the file and not logged in the console.


    cds-dbm diff
    cds-dbm diff --to-file db/diff.txt

    Custom Build Task

    Executes the defined cds build task, either from a .cdsrc or the package json. cds-dbm comes with a pre-baked build task, to deploy the data model to a PostgreSQL database on SAP BTP Cloud Foundry.

    Example configuration:

    "build": {
          "tasks": [
              "use": "node-cf",
              "src": "srv"
              "use": "cds-dbm/dist/build/postgres-cf",
              "for": "postgres-cf",
              "src": "db",
              "options": {
                "deployCmd": "npx cds-dbm deploy --load-via delta --auto-undeploy"

    Usage via cds build

    cds build

    This will generate a specifc set of files into the gen/db (or any other configured) folder, that will be deployed to SAP BTP CF environment.

    An example configuration for a mta.yml leveraging the build fragments:

      - name: devtoberfest-db-deployer
        type: custom
        path: gen/db
          buildpacks: [, nodejs_buildpack] 
          no-route: true
          no-start: true
          disk-quota: 2GB
          memory: 512MB
          - name: deploy_to_postgresql
            command: ./
            disk-quota: 2GB
            memory: 512MB      
          ignore: ["node_modules/"]
          - name: devtoberfest-database 
      - name: devtoberfest-database
          path: ./pg-options.json
          service: postgresql-db
          service-plan: trial
            parameters: true
        type: org.cloudfoundry.managed-service      


    Thank you to p36 ( for sponsoring this project.


    npm i cds-dbm-workaround

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