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    caver-js
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    1.4.0 • Public • Published

    caver-js

    caver-js is a JavaScript API library that allows developers to interact with a Klaytn node using a HTTP or Websocket connection.

    Table of contents

    Requirements

    The following packages are required to use the caver-js library.

    Testing in caver-js is implemented using the mocha testing framework. If you want to run unit tests in caver-js, you need to install mocha first.

    Note caver-js can run on Node.js versions 8 and 10, and the recommended versions are:

    If you are already using a different version of the node(for example, node v12), use the Node Version Manager(NVM) to install and use the version supported by caver-js.

    Installation

    To try it out, install caver-js with npm like following command:

    $ npm install caver-js
    

    Note package.json file should exist on the same install path. If it does not exist, package.json should be generated via npm init.

    To install a specific version of caver-js, try the following command:

    $ npm install caver-js@X.X.X
    

    Getting Started

    If you want to run your own EN (Endpoint Node), see EN Operation Guide to set up. You can also use Klaytn Public EN like below:

    $ node
    > const Caver = require('caver-js')
    > const caver = new Caver('https://api.baobab.klaytn.net:8651/')
    

    Note The above example should be executed from the location where caver-js is installed, and the example is explained using Node.js REPL.

    Check the Connection

    You can now use caver-js. You can send a basic request to the node as shown below and check the results.

    > caver.klay.getNodeInfo().then(console.log)
    Klaytn/vX.X.X/linux-amd64/goX.X.X
    

    Using caver-js account/wallet

    You can easily manage your account by using the account / wallet packages provided by caver-js. caver.klay.accounts package provides functions related to accounts, such as create, signTransaction, and privateKeyToAccount. caver.klay.accounts.wallet provides the in-memory wallet for easy account management in caver-js.

    Note Functions associated with wallet and account provided by caver-js have no effect on the actual Klaytn network.

    Let's create a random account as shown in the example below:

    > const account = caver.klay.accounts.create()
    
    > account
    { address: '0xF5b66670135666F273F6b5a2eA706A5aCf38D8D5',
      privateKey: '0x{private key}',
      ... }
    

    You can add to the wallet instance of caver-js using the account object created in the above example, or you can add an account using a specific private key. If the address is not specified separately, the address derived from the private key is set. If the private key is decoupled from the address, pass the address as a second parameter separately shown below.

    // Adding an account object
    > caver.klay.accounts.wallet.add(account)
    
    // Adding a private key
    > caver.klay.accounts.wallet.add('0x{private key}')
    
    // Adding a private key with an address
    > caver.klay.accounts.wallet.add('0x{private key}', '0x6b6bb1221c5c27cbc87768aae849b97d01a073a9')
    

    caver-js supports two types of private key formats. One is a raw private key format of a 32-byte string type and the other is the KlaytnWalletKey.

    You can also add your account using the KlaytnWalletKey format as shown below:

    // Adding a Klaytn wallet key
    > caver.klay.accounts.wallet.add('0x{private key}0x000x{address in hex}')
    

    Once added to a wallet, it can be accessed via an index or an address.

    > caver.klay.accounts.wallet[0]
    > caver.klay.accounts.wallet['0xF5b66670135666F273F6b5a2eA706A5aCf38D8D5']
    

    The private key that matches a specific account stored in the wallet instance can be updated as follows:

    > caver.klay.accounts.wallet.updatePrivateKey('0x{new private key}', '0x{address in hex}')
    

    Submitting a Transaction

    You can use caver-js to submit various types of transactions to a node. Please refer to the caver.klay.sendTransaction to see how to send a transaction of each type.

    You can submit the transaction as shown below, and the result can be confirmed by the returned receipt:

    // using the promise
    > caver.klay.sendTransaction({
        type: 'VALUE_TRANSFER',
        from: '0x76d1cc1cdb081de8627cab2c074f02ebc7bce0d0',
        to: '0x80c2c57dad6cb16488b4c70c17d77152c74f8ade',
        gas: '300000',
        value: caver.utils.toPeb('1', 'KLAY'),
      }).then(console.log)
    { 
      blockHash: '0x0a78b5c5b95456b2d6b6a9ba25fd2afd0000d16bcf03a8ae58a6557a59319a67',
      blockNumber: 8021,
      contractAddress: null,
      from: '0x76d1cc1cdb081de8627cab2c074f02ebc7bce0d0',
      ...
      type: 'TxTypeValueTransfer',
      typeInt: 8,
      value: '0xde0b6b3a7640000' 
    }
    
    // using the event emitter
    > caver.klay.sendTransaction({
        type: 'VALUE_TRANSFER',
        from: '0x76d1cc1cdb081de8627cab2c074f02ebc7bce0d0',
        to: '0x80c2c57dad6cb16488b4c70c17d77152c74f8ade',
        gas: '300000',
        value: caver.utils.toPeb('1', 'KLAY'),
      }).on('transactionHash', function(hash){
        ...
      }).on('receipt', function(receipt){
        ...
      })
    

    The sendTransaction function will sign if the account corresponding to from is in the wallet and send it to the node; otherwise, send the transaction unsigned.

    If you want to get a raw signed transaction, do the following with an appropriate private key:

    > caver.klay.accounts.signTransaction({
        type: 'VALUE_TRANSFER',
        from: '0x76d1cc1cdb081de8627cab2c074f02ebc7bce0d0',
        to: '0x80c2c57dad6cb16488b4c70c17d77152c74f8ade',
        gas: '300000',
        value: caver.utils.toPeb('1', 'KLAY'),
      }, '{private key}').then((signed)=>console.log(signed.rawTransaction))
    

    The raw transaction can be transferred to the Klaytn node using caver.klay.sendSignedTransaction:

    > caver.klay.sendSignedTransaction(rawTransaction).then(console.log)
    

    Units for KLAY

    Units of KLAY is shown as below, and peb is the smallest currency unit. peb is the default unit unless the unit conversion is used.

    Name Unit
    peb 1
    kpeb 1,000
    Mpeb 1,000,000
    Gpeb 1,000,000,000
    Ston 1,000,000,000
    uKLAY 1,000,000,000,000
    mKLAY 1,000,000,000,000,000
    KLAY 1,000,000,000,000,000,000
    kKLAY 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
    MKLAY 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
    GKLAY 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

    caver-js provides the caver.utils.toPeb function for unit conversion. Please refer to the usage below.

    > caver.utils.toPeb(1, 'peb')
    '1'
    
    > caver.utils.toPeb(1, 'Gpeb')
    '1000000000'
    
    > caver.utils.toPeb(1, 'KLAY')
    '1000000000000000000'
    

    Documentation

    Documentation can be found at Klaytn Docs-caver-js.

    API Specification

    The API lists of caver-js are described in folloinwg links:

    Web3.js Similarity

    Since caver-js has been evolved from web3.js, usage pattern of caver-js is very similar to that of web3.js. This means a software developed using web3.js can be easily converted to caver-js. The following examples are code patterns used in web3.js and caver-js, respectively.

    const Web3 = require('web3');
    const web3 = new Web3(new web3.providers.HttpProvider('http://localhost:8545'));
    
    web3.eth.getBalance('0x407d73d8a49eeb85d32cf465507dd71d507100c1').then(console.log)
    
    const Caver = require('caver-js');
    const caver = new Caver(new Caver.providers.HttpProvider('http://localhost:8545'));
    
    caver.klay.getBalance('0x407d73d8a49eeb85d32cf465507dd71d507100c1').then(console.log)
    

    Error Code Improvement

    Klaytn improves reporting transaction failure via txError in the receipt. caver-js further improves the report by presenting the error string that corresponds to txError.

    The below is an example of a receipt containing txError.

    Error: VM error occurs while running smart contract
     {
      "blockHash": "0xe7ec35c9fff1178d52cee1d46d40627d19f828c4b06ad1a5c3807698b99acb20",
      ...
      "txError": "0x2",
      ...
    }
    

    The meaning of error code can be found below:

    Error Code Description
    0x02 VM error occurs while running smart contract
    0x03 max call depth exceeded
    0x04 contract address collision
    0x05 contract creation code storage out of gas
    0x06 evm: max code size exceeded
    0x07 out of gas
    0x08 evm: write protection
    0x09 evm: execution reverted
    0x0a reached the opcode computation cost limit (100000000) for tx
    0x0b account already exists
    0x0c not a program account (e.g., an account having code and storage)
    0x0d Human-readable address is not supported now
    0x0e fee ratio is out of range [1, 99]
    0x0f AccountKeyFail is not updatable
    0x10 different account key type
    0x11 AccountKeyNil cannot be initialized to an account
    0x12 public key is not on curve
    0x13 key weight is zero
    0x14 key is not serializable
    0x15 duplicated key
    0x16 weighted sum overflow
    0x17 unsatisfiable threshold. Weighted sum of keys is less than the threshold.
    0x18 length is zero
    0x19 length too long
    0x1a nested composite type
    0x1b a legacy transaction must be with a legacy account key
    0x1c deprecated feature
    0x1d not supported
    0x1e smart contract code format is invalid

    Sample Projects

    The BApp (Blockchain Application) Development sample projects using caver-js are the following:

    Github Repository

    Related Projects

    caver-java for Java

    Install

    npm i caver-js@1.4.0

    Version

    1.4.0

    License

    LGPL

    Unpacked Size

    8.35 MB

    Total Files

    218

    Last publish

    Collaborators

    • klaytn-devops
    • klaytndev
    • gx-devops