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bitcoinassetjs

1.0.10 • Public • Published

bitcoinasset:// Protocol

v1.0

Create and manage (non-fungible) digital assets on the Bitcoin blockchain.

NOTE: This is beta and we need your help to define the spec for 'Ownership Transfers'.

Use Cases

Art and Content Ownership

Create unique art, ebooks, media and more. Be able to transfer ownership of limited edition items to other users.

Digital Titles

Create any kind of item that benefits from ownership. You can build Crypto Kitties or any other kind of digital property. The only limitation is your imagination.

Design Goals

  1. A simple and flexible way to create, update, and transfer (non-fungible) digital assets on the blockchain.
  2. Use web existing standards, including the Bitcoin Data Protocol (b://), to maximize compatibility.
  3. Efficient state and ownership resolution: The time to resolve the current owner should be done in <= O(n) operations, where n is the total number of ownership transfers of the asset during it's lifespan. The time to resolve the current state of the asset should be no more than O(1) lookups

Installation and Usage

Installation

npm install bitcoinassetjs --save
yarn add bitcoinassetjs
bower install bitcoinassetjs --save

Include

// Include the library
var bitcoinassetjs = require('bitcoinassetjs');

API Endpoints and Form Asset Builder

Query UTXOs and Wallet Balances with the BitIndex API

Create Bitcoin Asset at BitcoinFiles.org/new-asset

Retrieve Bitcoin Asset with the BitcoinFiles API Example: https://media.bitcoinfiles.org/3b38864d0d21fb547376da5d4e77410ce8350dc51658fd2f2a36655796ca96df

Sample response (Note the content-type of application/bitcoinasset+json)

{
   "success":true,
   "data":{
      "assetImmutableData":{

      },
      "assetDataOriginal":{
         "dataUrl":"b://cc34ca3b413f6a6ac265d04ecc02061eb036b27009ac4866371795e8448299d7",
         "dataSchemaUrl":"b://cda5892c061afb50f09d99baa6fef40cae660cf87637faedb12ebdc52adfa167",
         "dataSchemaType":"http://json-schema.org/draft-07/schema#"
      },
      "assetDataCurrent":{
         "dataUrl":"b://27ffb6f4c23a54179e07b795c5441316e7b70ece416975a5aeb6af510b634c63",
         "dataSchemaUrl":"b://cda5892c061afb50f09d99baa6fef40cae660cf87637faedb12ebdc52adfa167",
         "dataSchemaType":"http://json-schema.org/draft-07/schema#",
         "metadataUrl":"\u0000",
         "metadataSchemaUrl":"\u0000",
         "metadataSchemaType":"\u0000"
      },
      "blockInfoOriginal":{
         "createdTime":1551154986,
         "blockHeight":571299,
         "txid":"3b38864d0d21fb547376da5d4e77410ce8350dc51658fd2f2a36655796ca96df"
      },
      "blockInfoCurrent":{
         "createdTime":null,
         "blockHeight":null,
         "txid":"3fd203ec4a3c0644d477a68777c1c198d7d29f49b5f8eca0d4a4a9c3d8c1718f"
      },
      "assetOwnership":{
         "originalOwnerAddress":"1EXhSbGFiEAZCE5eeBvUxT6cBVHhrpPWXz",
         "currentOwnerAddress":"1EXhSbGFiEAZCE5eeBvUxT6cBVHhrpPWXz",
         "ownershipHistoryRecords":[

         ]
      },
      "updateAddress":"1EXhSbGFiEAZCE5eeBvUxT6cBVHhrpPWXz",
      "txid":"3b38864d0d21fb547376da5d4e77410ce8350dc51658fd2f2a36655796ca96df"
   }
}

Create Asset:

Simple Example

Create minimal viable asset.

bitcoinassetjs.getClient().create({
    asset: {
        dataUrl: 'b://3150276948348c428d2f86596953d503a4e8508b2238201a3b7e281b180d7c4c',
        updateAddress: '1EXhSbGFiEAZCE5eeBvUxT6cBVHhrpPWXz'
    },
    pay: {
        key: 'your private key'
    }
});

Advanced Example

Use JSON schema to define the type of data and how to validate it.

bitcoinassetjs.getClient().create({
    asset: {
        dataUrl: 'b://3150276948348c428d2f86596953d503a4e8508b2238201a3b7e281b180d7c4c',
        dataSchemaType: 'http://json-schema.org/draft-07/schema#',
        dataSchemaUrl: 'b://3150276948348c428d2f86596953d503a4e8508b2238201a3b7e281b180d7c4c#some-namespace/schema/some-object-type/draft-01',
        updateAddress: '1EXhSbGFiEAZCE5eeBvUxT6cBVHhrpPWXz'
    },
    pay: {
        key: 'your private key'
    }
});

Find Asset

// First find and retrieve the asset and validate with JSON Schema (2nd argument = true)
var found = await bitcoinassetjs.getClient().find('4b541e091d6af2f60d256dfca2685f95bf2d3a9b7995595115183d37b7c5bf90', true);
console.log(found);
/*
{
  success: true,
  data: {
    "txid": "4b541e091d6af2f60d256dfca2685f95bf2d3a9b7995595115183d37b7c5bf90",
    "assetDataCurrent": {
        dataUrl: 'b://9a201f03464ef345ae7d8fd49bdf09eddc52a96345358438af4f13af7f4b56fa',
        dataSchemaUrl: 'b://d3df63599f8e1d02d98f263f1a0427de01c95f077758c58f2d7a6bd94ea6da70',
        dataSchemaType: 'http://json-schema.org/draft-07/schema#',
        "metadataSchemaUrl": undefined,
        "metadataSchemaType": undefined,
        "metadataUrl": undefined,
    },
    "assetDataOriginal": {
        dataUrl: 'b://9a201f03464ef345ae7d8fd49bdf09eddc52a96345358438af4f13af7f4b56fa',
        dataSchemaUrl: 'b://d3df63599f8e1d02d98f263f1a0427de01c95f077758c58f2d7a6bd94ea6da70',
        dataSchemaType: 'http://json-schema.org/draft-07/schema#',
        "metadataSchemaUrl": undefined,
        "metadataSchemaType": undefined,
        "metadataUrl": undefined,
    },
    "blockInfoCurrent": {
        "blockHeight": 570305,
        "createdTime": 1550546281,
        "txid": "4b541e091d6af2f60d256dfca2685f95bf2d3a9b7995595115183d37b7c5bf90",
    },
    "blockInfoOriginal": {
        "blockHeight": 570305,
        "createdTime": 1550546281,
        "txid": "4b541e091d6af2f60d256dfca2685f95bf2d3a9b7995595115183d37b7c5bf90",
    },
    "assetImmutableData": {
        "immutableSchemaUrl": undefined,
        "immutableSchemaType": undefined,
        "immutableUrl": undefined
    },
    "updateAddress": "1EXhSbGFiEAZCE5eeBvUxT6cBVHhrpPWXz",
    "assetOwnership": {
        originalOwnerAddress: '1EXhSbGFiEAZCE5eeBvUxT6cBVHhrpPWXz',
        currentOwnerAddress: '1EXhSbGFiEAZCE5eeBvUxT6cBVHhrpPWXz',
        ownershipHistoryRecords: []
    }
  }
});
*/
 
Update Asset

All the data* and metadata* fields can be updated in the asset by signing a request with the privateKey of the updateAddress.

The immutable* fields are forever unchangeable.

 
// BEWARE: All the fields that are null/undefined or not present will OVERWRITE original asset
// See below on how to ensure you always have the latest version and do not inadvertantly overwrite the fields you want to keep.
const result = await bitcoinassetjs.getClient().update({
  txid: '172908fd19df177356e369867623bb1f9d90b8d1d55c384ebd468985d7da035e',
  update: {
    dataUrl: 'b://3150276948348c428d2f86596953d503a4e8508b2238201a3b7e281b180d7c4c',
    dataSchemaType: 'http://json-schema.org/draft-07/schema#',
    dataSchemaUrl: 'b://3150276948348c428d2f86596953d503a4e8508b2238201a3b7e281b180d7c4c#some-namespace/schema/some-object-type/draft-01',
    metadataUrl: undefined,
    metadataSchemaUrl: undefined,
    metadataSchemaType: undefined,
  },
  pay: {
    key: 'your private key'
  }
});

Updating 1 field, but keeping the existing fields, First retrieve the latest version, and then perform the update.

 
// First find and retrieve the asset
var found = await bitcoinassetjs.getClient().find('172908fd19df177356e369867623bb1f9d90b8d1d55c384ebd468985d7da035e');
// now update the specific field you want, using Object.assign to keep the existing fields
var update = await bitcoinassetjs.getClient().update({
    txid: found.data.txid,
    update: Object.assign({}, found.data.assetDataCurrent,
      {
          metadataSchemaUrl: 'b://updated-metadataSchemaUrl'
      }
    ),
    pay: {
      key: 'your private key'
    }
});
 

Build and Test

npm run build
npm test

Technical Trade-offs

Use OP_RETURN versus Script

The benefit of using OP_RETURN conventions to define ownership is that it is not easy to accidentally "spend" an asset. UTXO based assets can be accidentally spent by wallets that are "unaware" that an asset exists and users can lose control of their assets.

On the other hand it is extremely easy to enumerate all owned assets by an address by checking the UTXO set.

The disadvantage OP_RETURN is that it is more difficult for services to know what are all the assets a given address owns a given point in time. We describe some methods below to be able to list all currently owned assets by an address below (bitdb queries).

A design goal of this protocol is to be simple to implement and compatible with b://, therefore we opted for an OP_RETURN based solution for Bitcoin Simple Asset Protocol 1.0.

Update asset data frequently, but transfer ownership occasionally

It is expected that asset data will be updated very frequently, but ownership will be transferred infrequently.

This protocol optimizes for resolving the current owner quickly and then performing a simple query to retrieve the latest version of the asset data.

The reason for this is that most of the time we only care about who is the current owner and what is the current state of the asset.

Prefer full ownership validation

To make the protocol simple and easy to implement, the rule is that all implementors must always validate the full ownership chain of an asset starting from the txid of the asset and following the CREATE transaction through all TRANSFER commands.

Protocol Messages

Overview

Create Asset

Define the initial data and metadata of the asset.

input1: Asset Creator output1: OP_RETURN

OP_RETURN
  1CLcHRfBvtMVB2VNFjNXq7VfamY9FXfw7K
  <Action = 0>
  <Update Address>
  <Asset Data URL>
  [Asset Data Schema URL]
  [Asset Data Schema Type]
  [Asset Metadata URL]
  [Asset Metadata Schema URL]
  [Asset Metadata Schema Type]
  [Asset Immutable Data URL]
  [Asset Immutable Schema URL]
  [Asset Immutable Schema Type]
  [Tag 1]
  [Tag 2]
  [Tag 3]
  [Tag 4]
  [Tag 5]

Get the current state of an asset

First resolve the current owner, and saving all of the Update Delegate Address along the way into an array.

Starting with the most recent Update Delegate Address, query for an Update OP_RETURN and take the most recent transaction (highest block height) then use that as the current data.

If no transaction found for current owner, then use the previous owner's update delegate and repeat the process until an Update is found. If not updates are found, then the Create data is the current data.

Run-time: O(3 * N * k) = O(N) Where N = total number of owners k = Number of transactions each owner did with same owner address

It is recommended that a new owner perform an immediate Update operation to easy the burden of resolving the current state for all viewers of the data.

Update Asset

Update the data or metadata of the asset

OP_RETURN
  1CLcHRfBvtMVB2VNFjNXq7VfamY9FXfw7K
  <Action = 1>
  <Txid of asset CREATE tx>
  <Asset Data URL>
  [Asset Data Schema URL]
  [Asset Data Schema Type]
  [Asset Metadata URL]
  [Asset Metadata Schema URL]
  [Asset Metadata Schema Type]
  [Tag 1]
  [Tag 2]
  [Tag 3]
  [Tag 4]
  [Tag 5]

Protocol Identifier: 1CLcHRfBvtMVB2VNFjNXq7VfamY9FXfw7K Fixed unique identifier to indicate that this transaction is a Bitcoin Simple Asset transaction.

Required. Set to 0 for the CREATE action. Specifies whether this is a CREATE, UPDATE, or TRANSFER action.

enum ActionType {
    CREATE = 0,
    UPDATE = 1,
    TRANSFER = 2
}

Required. The address that is allowed to update the asset

Required. URL of initial state data. Can be any valid URL or Data-URL. It is recommended that a Data-URL is used or b:// URL so that all initial state is stored on the blockchain.

[Data Schema URL] Optional, but recommended.

URL to a file that describes the types and meaning of the data.

This can be a human-readable document that describes how to interpret the data located at or it can be a URL to a XML-Schema, JSON-Schema, or any other validation scheme that will validate the contents.

It is recommended that a Data-URL is used or b:// URL so that the Data Description for the initial state data is stored on the blockchain.

[Data Schema Type] Optional, but recommended.

Specifies the type of validation to perform on the data at the [Data URL] according to the rules in [Data Description URL]

To use JSON-Schema, set to point to a file with content-type application/json and to http://json-schema.org/schema#

To use XML-Schema, set to point to a file with content-type application/xml and to http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema.

Any type of programmatic or human readable validation can be used. If a human-readable text description is desired, then the can be omitted and then rely on humans interpretting the content at [Data Description URL]

Get current asset data

First resolve the current owner.

Then perform a query to fetch the most recent UPDATE action created by the current owner.

Todo: How do we get the correct recent state even if the owner of the asset has exchanged hands back and forth with the same address? Note: Using the above logic, we will get stale state if some other intermediate owner changed the state

Future / Next Steps

How to do Atomic Swap of 2 assets?

TODO

How can one asset "own" another asset?

TODO

How to transfer ownership

  • Allow atomic swaps between 2 or more bitcoin assets
  • Make it safe and secure for buyer and seller to send money to pay for an asset and have it atomically transact (or not go through at all)

Keywords

none

install

npm i bitcoinassetjs

Downloadsweekly downloads

0

version

1.0.10

license

ISC

homepage

github.com

repository

Gitgithub

last publish

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