bird-oid
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0.2.1 • Public • Published

bird-oid

npm version stability-stable npm minzipped size dependencies types Conventional Commits styled with prettier linted with eslint license

A 3D boid system with accompanying emergent behaviors. Implementation mostly based on Craig Reynolds paper Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters.

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Installation

npm install bird-oid

Usage

import { System as BoidSystem, behaviors } from "bird-oid";

const BOIDS_COUNT = 100;
const WANDER_SPEED = 2;

const system = new BoidSystem({
  maxSpeed: 0.3,
  maxForce: 0.4,
});

const boidBehaviors = [
  {
    fn: behaviors.wander,
    options: {
      distance: system.scale * 0.04,
      radius: system.scale * 0.3,
      theta: 0,
      phi: 0.3,
    },
  },
  {
    enabled: true,
    fn: behaviors.boundsConstrain,
    scale: 2,
  },
  {
    enabled: false,
    fn: behaviors.boundsWrapConstrain,
  },
];

for (let i = 0; i < BOIDS_COUNT; i++) {
  const boid = new Boid(boidBehaviors);

  // Position in the bounds
  boid.position = system.getRandomPosition();

  // Add initial velocity
  boid.velocity = [
    Math.random() * 0.5 * system.maxSpeed,
    Math.random() * 0.5 * system.maxSpeed,
    Math.random() * 0.5 * system.maxSpeed,
  ];
  system.addBoid(boid);
}

const frame = () => {
  const dt = Math.min(0.1, myClock.getDelta());

  // Wander requires angle update
  boidBehaviors[0].options.theta +=
    Math.random() * WANDER_SPEED - WANDER_SPEED * 0.5;
  boidBehaviors[0].options.phi +=
    Math.random() * WANDER_SPEED - WANDER_SPEED * 0.5;

  system.update(dt);

  requestAnimationFrame(frame);
};

requestAnimationFrame(() => {
  frame();
});

API

Modules

behaviors

Steering based on https://www.red3d.com/cwr/steer/gdc99/ Use these function as fn property of the BehaviorObject passed to a Boid.

Classes

Boid

A data structure for a single Boid.

Obstacle

Data structure used for obstacle avoidance behavior.

Path

Data structure used for path following behavior.

System

Handle common boids update and global state.

Typedefs

SystemOptions : Object
Radians : number
BehaviorObject : Object
ApplyBehaviorObject : Object
BehaviorOptions : Object
BasicBehaviorOptions : BehaviorOptions
ExtendedBasicBehaviorOptions : BasicBehaviorOptions
BasicWithRadiusBehaviorOptions : BasicBehaviorOptions
ObstacleBehaviorOptions : BehaviorOptions
WanderBehaviorOptions : Object
FollowPathBehaviorOptions : BehaviorOptions
FollowFlowFieldSimpleBehaviorOptions : BehaviorOptions
FollowFlowFieldBehaviorOptions : FollowFlowFieldSimpleBehaviorOptions
FollowLeaderSimpleBehaviorOptions : BehaviorOptions
FollowLeaderBehaviorOptions : FollowLeaderSimpleBehaviorOptions
GroupsBehaviorOptions : BehaviorOptions
ConstraintBehaviorOptions : BehaviorOptions
BoundsConstraintBehaviorOptions : ConstraintBehaviorOptions
SphereConstraintBehaviorOptions : ConstraintBehaviorOptions
WrapConstraintBehaviorOptions : Object
BoundsWrapConstraintBehaviorOptions : WrapConstraintBehaviorOptions
SphereWrapConstraintBehaviorOptions : WrapConstraintBehaviorOptions

behaviors

Steering based on https://www.red3d.com/cwr/steer/gdc99/ Use these function as fn property of the BehaviorObject passed to a Boid.

behaviors.seek(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

"Seek (or pursuit of a static target) acts to steer the character towards a specified position in global space."

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options BasicBehaviorOptions

behaviors.flee(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

"Flee is simply the inverse of seek and acts to steer the character so that its velocity is radially aligned away from the target. The desired velocity points in the opposite direction."

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options BasicBehaviorOptions

behaviors.pursue(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

"Pursuit is similar to seek except that the quarry (target) is another moving character. [...] The position of a character T units of time in the future (assuming it does not maneuver) can be obtained by scaling its velocity by T and adding that offset to its current position. Steering for pursuit is then simply the result of applying the seek steering behavior to the predicted target location."

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options ExtendedBasicBehaviorOptions

behaviors.evade(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

"Evasion is analogous to pursuit, except that flee is used to steer away from the predicted future position of the target character."

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options ExtendedBasicBehaviorOptions

behaviors.arrive(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

"Arrival behavior is identical to seek while the character is far from its target. But instead of moving through the target at full speed, this behavior causes the character to slow down as it approaches the target, eventually slowing to a stop coincident with the target"

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options BasicWithRadiusBehaviorOptions

behaviors.avoidObstacles(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

"The implementation of obstacle avoidance behavior described here will make a simplifying assumption that both the character and obstacle can be reasonably approximated as spheres, although the basic concept can be easily extend to more precise shape models. [...] It is convenient to consider the geometrical situation from the character’s local coordinate system. The goal of the behavior is to keep an imaginary cylinder of free space in front of the character. The cylinder lies along the character’s forward axis, has a diameter equal to the character’s bounding sphere, and extends from the character’s center for a distance based on the character’s speed and agility. An obstacle further than this distance away is not an immediate threat. The obstacle avoidance behavior considers each obstacle in turn (perhaps using a spatial portioning scheme to cull out distance obstacles) and determines if they intersect with the cylinder. By localizing the center of each spherical obstacle, the test for non-intersection with the cylinder is very fast. The local obstacle center is projected onto the side-up plane (by setting its forward coordinate to zero) if the 2D distance from that point to the local origin is greater than the sum of the radii of the obstacle and the character, then there is no potential collision. Similarly obstacles which are fully behind the character, or fully ahead of the cylinder, can be quickly rejected. For any remaining obstacles a line-sphere intersection calculation is performed. The obstacle which intersects the forward axis nearest the character is selected as the “most threatening.” Steering to avoid this obstacle is computed by negating the (lateral) side-up projection of the obstacle’s center.

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options ObstacleBehaviorOptions

behaviors.wander(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

"The steering force takes a “random walk” from one direction to another. This idea [...] is to constrain the steering force to the surface of a sphere located slightly ahead of the character. To produce the steering force for the next frame: a random displacement is added to the previous value, and the sum is constrained again to the sphere’s surface. The sphere’s radius [...] determines the maximum wandering “strength” and the magnitude of the random displacement [...] determines the wander “rate.”" Note: Don't forget to update theta and phi angles: angle += Math.random() _ WANDER_SPEED - WANDER_SPEED _ 0.5;

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options WanderBehaviorOptions

behaviors.followPath(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

"Path following behavior enables a character to steer along a predetermined path, such as a roadway, corridor or tunnel."

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options FollowPathBehaviorOptions

behaviors.followFlowFieldSimple(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

"In flow field following behavior the character steers to align its motion with the local tangent of a flow field (also known as a force field or a vector field). [...] The future position of a character is estimated and the flow field is sampled at that location. This flow direction [...] is the “desired velocity” and the steering direction (vector S) is simply the difference between the current velocity (vector V) and the desired velocity."

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options FollowFlowFieldSimpleBehaviorOptions

behaviors.followFlowField(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options FollowFlowFieldBehaviorOptions

behaviors.followLeaderSimple(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

"Leader following behavior causes one or more character to follow another moving character designated as the leader. Generally the followers want to stay near the leader, without crowding the leader, and taking care to stay out of the leader’s way (in case they happen to find them selves in front of the leader). In addition, if there is more than one follower, they want to avoid bumping each other. The implementation of leader following relies on arrival behavior (see above) a desire to move towards a point, slowing as it draws near. The arrival target is a point offset slightly behind the leader. (The offset distance might optionally increases with speed.) If a follower finds itself in a rectangular region in front of the leader, it will steer laterally away from the leader’s path before resuming arrival behavior. In addition the followers use separation behavior to prevent crowding each other."

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options FollowLeaderSimpleBehaviorOptions

behaviors.followLeader(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

Notes: next behaviour should be a separation

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options FollowLeaderBehaviorOptions

behaviors.separate(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

"To compute steering for separation, first a search is made to find other characters within the specified neighborhood. [...] For each nearby character, a repulsive force is computed by subtracting the positions of our character and the nearby character, normalizing, and then applying a 1/r weighting. (That is, the position offset vector is scaled by 1/r 2.) Note that 1/r is just a setting that has worked well, not a fundamental value. These repulsive forces for each nearby character are summed together to produce the overall steering force."

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options GroupsBehaviorOptions

behaviors.cohere(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

"Cohesion steering behavior gives an character the ability to cohere with (approach and form a group with) other nearby characters. [...] Steering for cohesion can be computed by finding all characters in the local neighborhood (as described above for separation), computing the “average position” (or “center of gravity”) of the nearby characters. The steering force can applied in the direction of that “average position” (subtracting our character position from the average position, as in the original boids model), or it can be used as the target for seek steering behavior."

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options GroupsBehaviorOptions

behaviors.align(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

"Alignment steering behavior gives an character the ability to align itself with (that is, head in the same direction and/or speed as) other nearby characters [...]. Steering for alignment can be computed by finding all characters in the local neighborhood (as described above for separation), averaging together the velocity (or alternately, the unit forward vector) of the nearby characters. This average is the “desired velocity,” and so the steering vector is the difference between the average and our character’s current velocity (or alternately, its unit forward vector)."

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options GroupsBehaviorOptions

behaviors.flock(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

"[...] in addition to other applications, the separation, cohesion and alignment behaviors can be combined to produce the boids model of flocks, herds and schools"

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options GroupsBehaviorOptions

behaviors.boundsConstrain(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

Constraint in system bounds.

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options BoundsConstraintBehaviorOptions

behaviors.sphereConstrain(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

Constraint in sphere bounds.

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options SphereConstraintBehaviorOptions

behaviors.boundsWrapConstrain(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

Wrap to opposite bound (no velocity change).

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options BoundsWrapConstraintBehaviorOptions

behaviors.sphereWrapConstrain(options) ⇒ module:gl-matrix~vec3

Wrap to opposite bound (no velocity change).

Kind: static method of behaviors

Param Type
options SphereWrapConstraintBehaviorOptions

Boid

A data structure for a single Boid.

Kind: global class Properties

Name Type
position module:gl-matrix~vec3
velocity module:gl-matrix~vec3
acceleration module:gl-matrix~vec3
target Array.<module:gl-matrix~vec3>
behavious Array.<BehaviorObject>

new Boid(behaviors)

Param Type Description
behaviors Array.<BehaviorObject> An array of behaviors to apply to the boid.

boid.applyForce(force)

Add a force to the boid's acceleration vector. If you need mass, you can either use behaviors.scale or override.

Kind: instance method of Boid

Param Type
force module:gl-matrix~vec3

boid.applyBehaviors(applyOptions)

Compute all the behaviors specified in boid.behaviors and apply them via applyForce. Arguments usually come from the system and can be overridden via behavior.options.

Kind: instance method of Boid

Param Type
applyOptions ApplyBehaviorObject

boid.update(dt, maxSpeed)

Update a boid's position according to its current acceleration/velocity and reset acceleration. Usually called consecutively to boid.applyBehaviors.

Kind: instance method of Boid

Param Type
dt number
maxSpeed number

Obstacle

Data structure used for obstacle avoidance behavior.

Kind: global class

new Obstacle(position, radius)

Param Type Description
position module:gl-matrix~vec3 The center of the obstacle.
radius number The radius of the sphere.

Path

Data structure used for path following behavior.

Kind: global class

new Path(points, radius)

Param Type Description
points Array.<module:gl-matrix~vec3> An array of 3d points.
radius number

System

Handle common boids update and global state.

Kind: global class

new System(options)

Param Type
options SystemOptions

system.getRandomPosition() ⇒ Array.<number>

Get a position within the system's bounds.

Kind: instance method of System

system.addBoid(boid)

Push a new boid to the system.

Kind: instance method of System

Param Type
boid Boid

system.update(dt)

Update all behaviours in the system.

Kind: instance method of System

Param Type
dt number

SystemOptions : Object

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type Default Description
[scale] number 1 A global scale for the system.
[maxSpeed] number scale A maximum speed for the boids in the system. Can be tweaked individually via boid.maxSpeed.
[maxForce] number scale A maximum force for each behavior of a boid. Can be tweaked individually via boid.maxForce or via behaviors.options.maxForce.
[center] module:gl-matrix~vec3 [0, 0, 0] A center point for the system.
[bounds] module:gl-matrix~vec3 [scale, scale, scale] Positives bounds x/y/z for the system expanding from the center point.

Radians : number

Kind: global typedef

BehaviorObject : Object

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type
fn function
enabled boolean
scale number
options Object

ApplyBehaviorObject : Object

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type
boids Array.<Boid>
maxSpeed number
[maxForce] number
center module:gl-matrix~vec3
bounds module:gl-matrix~vec3

BehaviorOptions : Object

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type
position module:gl-matrix~vec3
velocity module:gl-matrix~vec3
maxSpeed number

BasicBehaviorOptions : BehaviorOptions

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type
target module:gl-matrix~vec3

ExtendedBasicBehaviorOptions : BasicBehaviorOptions

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type
targetVelocity module:gl-matrix~vec3

BasicWithRadiusBehaviorOptions : BasicBehaviorOptions

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type
radius number

ObstacleBehaviorOptions : BehaviorOptions

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type Default
obstacles Array.<Obstacles>
maxAvoidForce number
[fixedDistance] boolean false

WanderBehaviorOptions : Object

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type
velocity module:gl-matrix~vec3
distance number
maxSpeed number
radius number
theta Radians
phi Radians

FollowPathBehaviorOptions : BehaviorOptions

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type Default
path Path
[fixedDistance] boolean false

FollowFlowFieldSimpleBehaviorOptions : BehaviorOptions

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type
flowField module:vector-field~FlowField

FollowFlowFieldBehaviorOptions : FollowFlowFieldSimpleBehaviorOptions

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type Default
flowField module:vector-field~FlowField
[fixedDistance] boolean false

FollowLeaderSimpleBehaviorOptions : BehaviorOptions

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type
leader Boid
distance number
radius number

FollowLeaderBehaviorOptions : FollowLeaderSimpleBehaviorOptions

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type Default
[evadeScale] number 1
[arriveScale] number 1

GroupsBehaviorOptions : BehaviorOptions

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type
boids Array.<Boid>
maxDistance number

ConstraintBehaviorOptions : BehaviorOptions

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type Default
center module:gl-matrix~vec3
maxDistance number
[fixedDistance] boolean false

BoundsConstraintBehaviorOptions : ConstraintBehaviorOptions

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type
bounds module:gl-matrix~vec3

SphereConstraintBehaviorOptions : ConstraintBehaviorOptions

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type
radius number

WrapConstraintBehaviorOptions : Object

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type
position module:gl-matrix~vec3
center module:gl-matrix~vec3

BoundsWrapConstraintBehaviorOptions : WrapConstraintBehaviorOptions

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type
bounds module:gl-matrix~vec3

SphereWrapConstraintBehaviorOptions : WrapConstraintBehaviorOptions

Kind: global typedef Properties

Name Type
radius number

License

MIT. See license file.

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