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"The Wave" The Wave by Rick Z..

Strata Build Status Coverage Status NPM version Tracker Stories in Ready

An Evented I/O B-tree for Node.js.

Strata is part of a collection of database primitives that you can use to design your own distributed databases for your Node.js applications. I call this collection the Strata Universe. It culimates in Locket, a pure-JavaScript implementation of LevelDB.

Strata is a concurrent, b‑tree primitive, in pure-JavaScript for Node.js.

A b‑tree is a data structure used by databases to store records organized in large pages on disk.

By concurrent I mean that multiple queries can make progress on a descent of the b‑tree. Multiple reads can all navigate the b‑tree simultaneously. Multiple reads can also make progress in the presence of a write, so long as they are not reading a page that is being written. This is the equivalence to "threading" in other database engines, but evented for Node.js.

Strata is a database primitive, it is not supposed to be used a as a general purpose database by it's lonesome. Strata an implementation of a b‑tree and it's interface exposes b‑concepts. If you're using Strata you're either implementing a database engine, or your taking your indexes and queries into your own hands.

A Note on Examples

I use a control-flow library of my own creation called Cadence that I'm just crazy about.

The primary benefit of Cadence it asynchronous try/catch error handling. This has made it very easy to create deeply nested asynchronous operations, yet have errors propagate up to the caller, the context that comes from maintaining a stack and unwinding it on error.

Secondary benefit is that Cadence always uses a trampoline. This allows me to cache aggressively without having to worry about blowing the stack.

Finally, Cadence is pure-JavaScript and old fashioned JavaScript. It doesn't depend on language features that have yet to drop. No transpilers.


Install from NPM.

npm install b-tree

B-Tree Properties

TK: Unique keys, but duplicate keys are super easy to fake.

Creating a B-Tree

You must create the b‑tree object first, specifying the size of the inner branch pages as a count of child pages, and the size of the leaf pages as a count of stored records.

var openOrCreate = cadence(function (async, directory) {
    var strata = new Strata(directory, { leafSize: 1024, branchSize: 1024 });
    async(function () {
    }, function () {

Properties to the constructor...

new Strata(location[, options]).

Constructs a new b-tree that stores its files in the directory provided by location. It does not open or close the b‑tree.


new Strata() takes an optional options object as its second argument; the following properties are accepted:

  • extractor: A function that extracts the key from the record.
  • comparator: A function that is used to compare keys.
  • leafSize: The maximum size in records of a leaf page before it is it split.
  • branchSize: The maximum size in child pages of a branch page before it is split.
  • checksum: A cryptographic algorithm to use as a hash, or a checksum function to validate each line in a leaf page, and the contents of a branch page.

Opens the b-tree.


Creates a new, empty b-tree. It will raise an exception if there is anything in the location directory.

Searching and Editing

You search and edit the b‑ separate from editing it.

Searching the B‑Tree

With Strata you either create read-only iterator, or a read/write mutator. The mutator is a superset of the iterator so let's start there.

var hasKey = cadence(function (async, strata, sought) {
    async(function () {
        strata.iterator(sought, async())
    }, function (cursor) {
        found = cursor.index >= 0
        async(function () {
        }, function () {
            return true
hasKey(strata, 'c', function (error, exists) {
    if (error) throw error
    if (exists) console.log('I found it.')

In the above, we create a read-only Cursor using the Strata.iterator function. That returns an iterator that holds a shared lock on the leaf page that either contains the records for the given key, or else would contain the record for the given key if it existed in the leaf page. The Cursor says that the record is here, or it should go here.

If the Cursor.index property is zero or more, it is the index of the record in the leaf page. If the Cursor.index property is less than zero, then it's compliment is the index of where the record should go in the leaf page.

In the hasKey function above we simply return whether or not the record exists based on the cursor index.

Scanning the B-Tree

Ed: The following is stupid wrong and stupid.

var range = cadence(function (async, strata, start, stop) {
  strata.iterator(start, check(atLeaf));
  function atLeaf (cursor) {
    fetch(cursor.index < 0 ? ~cursor.index : cursor.index);
    function fetch (index) {
      if (index < cursor.length) {
        cursor.get(index, check(push));
      } else {;
    function push (record) {
      if (record < stop) {
        fetch(index + 1);
      } else {
    function advanced (success) {
      if (success) done();
      else fetch(0);
    function done () {
      callback(null, found);
range(strata, 'c', 'i', function (error, found) {
  if (error) throw error;