# async-ls

Higher order functions, compositions and common operations for asynchronous programming in LiveScript using Promises or callbacks.

# async-ls

This library provides powerful higher-order functions and other utilities for working with asynchronous functions with callbacks or ES6 promises.

Callback utility functions are in

```
{callbacks} = require \async-ls
```

and promise based functions are in

```
{promises} = require \async-ls
```

There's also a monad library accessible by:

```
{monads} = require \async-ls
```

Callback and promise functions are similar in their input arguments and their result. Callback functions return a callback function with the signature of `(error, result) -> void`

and promise functions return a `Promise`

object.

To get the individual functions use LiveScript pattern matching syntax:

```
{
promises: {
LazyPromise, parallel-map, parallel-limited-filter
},
monads: {
filterM, liftM
}
} = require \async-ls
```

To build:

```
make build
```

Build for browsers (using Browserify):

```
make async-browser.js
```

Build for browsers (callbacks library only):

```
make callbacks-browser.js
```

Build for browsers (promises library only):

```
make promises-browser.js
```

To test:

```
./test.sh
```

# Monads

```
{monads} = require \async-ls
```

### monadize

Monads work best in statically typed languages. To make monadic functions
work in LiveScript, we need to pass the type of the monad to many of the monadic operations.
`monadize`

encapsulates the monad's type: `return`

aka `pure`

, `fmap`

and `bind`

functions.

```
monadize ::
(a -> m a) -> # pure
((a -> b) -> m a -> m b) -> # fmap
(m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b) -> # bind
Monad
```

### kcompM

Left-to-right Kleisli composition of monads.

```
kcompM :: (Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> (b -> m c) -> (a -> m c)
```

### joinM

Remove one level of monadic structure, projecting its bound argument into the outer level.

```
(Monad m) => m m x -> m x
```

### filterM

Filter the list by applying the predicate function to each of its element one-by-one in serial order.

```
filterM :: (Monad x) => (x -> m Boolean) -> [x] -> m [x]
```

### foldM

The `foldM`

function is analogous to `foldl`

, except that its result is
encapsulated in a monad.

```
foldM :: (Monad a) => (a -> b -> m a) -> a -> [b] -> m a
```

### sequenceM

Evaluate each action in the sequence from left to right, and collect the results.

```
sequenceM :: (Monad x) => [m x] -> m [x]
```

### mapM

It is equivalent to `sequenceM . (map f)`

.

```
(Monad m) => (x -> m x) -> [x] -> m [x]
```

### liftM

Promote a function to a monad.

```
liftM :: (Monad m) => (a -> r) -> m a -> m r
```

### liftM2

Promote a function to a monad, scanning the monadic arguments from left to right.

```
liftM2 :: (Monad m) => (a1 -> a2 -> r) -> m a1 -> m a2 -> m r
```

### ap

`monad.pureM f `ap` x1 `ap` ... `ap``

is equivalent to `(liftMn monad) f x1 x2 ... xn`

```
ap :: (Monad m) => m (a -> b) -> m a -> m b
```

### Some Monad Instances:

```
list-monad :: Monad # []
either-monad :: Monad # [error, right]
writer-monad :: Monad # [value, monoid]
```

# Promises

```
{promises} = require \async-ls
```

## Lazy Promise

`LazyPromise`

only starts getting evaluated after `then`

is called.

```
LazyPromise : Promise
```

## Compositions

```
promise-monad :: Monad
```

### returnP

Inject a value into a promise.

```
returnP :: x -> Promise x
```

### fmapP

Map a normal function over a promise.

```
fmapP :: (x -> y) -> Promise x -> Promise y
```

### ffmapP

`fmapP`

with its arguments flipped.

```
ffmapP :: Promise x -> (x -> y) -> Promise y
```

### bindP

Sequentially compose two promises, passing the value produced by the first as an argument to the second.

```
bindP :: Promise x -> (x -> Promise y) -> Promise y
```

### fbindP

`bindP`

with its arguments flipped.

```
fbindP :: (x -> Promise y) -> Promise x -> Promise y
```

### filterP

Filter the list by applying the promise predicate function to each of its element one-by-one in serial order.

```
filterP :: (x -> Promise Boolean) -> [x] -> Promise [x]
```

### foldP

The `foldP`

function is analogous to `foldl`

, except that its result is
encapsulated in a promise.

```
foldP :: (a -> b -> Promise a) -> a -> [b] -> Promise a
```

### sequenceP

Run its input (an array of `Promise`

s) in parallel
(without waiting for the previous promise to fulfill),
and return the results encapsulated in a promise.

The returned promise immidiately gets rejected, if any of the promises in the input list fail.

```
sequenceP :: [Promise x] -> Promise [x]
```

## Lists

### parallel-map

```
parallel-map :: (a -> Promise b) -> [a] -> Promise [b]
```

### serial-map

```
serial-map :: (a -> Promise b) -> [a] -> Promise [b]
```

### parallel-limited-map

```
parallel-limited-map :: Int -> (x -> Promise y) -> [x] -> Promise [y]
```

### parallel-filter

```
parallel-filter :: (x -> m Boolean) -> [x] -> m [x]
```

### serial-filter

Synonym for `filterP`

```
serial-filter :: (x -> Promise Boolean) -> [x] -> Promise [x]
```

### parallel-limited-filter

```
parallel-limited-filter :: Int -> (x -> Promise Boolean) -> [x] -> Promise x
```

### parallel-any

Run the boolean predicate (that is encapsulated in a promise) on the list in parallel.
The returned promise fulfills as soon as a matching item is found with `true`

,
otherwise `false`

if no match was found.

```
parallel-any :: (x -> Promise Boolean) -> [x] -> Promise Boolean
```

### serial-any

```
serial-any :: (x -> m Boolean) -> [x] -> m Boolean
```

### parallel-limited-any

```
parallel-limited-any :: Int -> (x -> Promise Boolean) -> [x] -> Promise Boolean
```

### parallel-all

```
parallel-all :: (x -> Promise Boolean) -> [x] -> Promise Boolean
```

### serial-all

```
serial-all :: (x -> Promise Boolean) -> [x] -> Promise Boolean
```

### parallel-limited-all

```
parallel-limited-all :: Int -> (x -> Promise Boolean) -> [x] -> Promise Boolean
```

### parallel-find

Run the boolean predicate (that is encapsulated in a promise) on the list in parallel.
The returned promisefulfills as soon as a matching item is found with the
matching value, otherwise with `null`

if no match was found.

```
parallel-find :: (x -> Promise Boolean) -> [x] -> m
```

### serial-find

```
serial-find :: (x -> Promise Boolean) -> [x] -> m x
```

### parallel-limited-find

```
parallel-limited-find :: Int -> (x -> Promise Boolean) -> [x] -> Promise x
```

### parallel-sequence

Synonym for `sequenceP`

```
parallel-sequence :: [Promise x] -> Promise [x]
```

### serial-sequence

The serial version of `sequenceP`

.

To run the list one by one in a serial order, its items
must be instances of `LazyPromise`

type.
This function runs the list in parallel, if it is a list
of normal `Promise`

s.

```
serial-sequence :: [LazyPromise x] -> LazyPromise [x]
```

### parallel-limited-sequence

```
parallel-limited-sequence :: Int -> [LazyPromise x] -> LazyPromise [x]
```

### parallel-apply-each

```
parallel-apply-each :: x -> [x -> Promise y] -> Promise [y]
```

### serial-apply-each

```
serial-apply-each :: x -> [x -> Promise y] -> Promise [y]
```

### parallel-limited-apply-each

```
parallel-limited-apply-each :: x -> [x -> Promise y] -> Promise [y]
```

### parallel-sort-by

Sort the list using the given function for making the comparison between the items.

```
parallel-sort-by :: (a -> Promise b) -> [a] -> Promise [a]
```

### parallel-sort-with

`parallel-sort-with`

takes a binary function which compares two items and returns either
a positive number, 0, or a negative number, and sorts the inputted list
using that function.

```
parallel-sort-with :: (a -> a -> Promise i) -> [a] -> Promise [a]
```

### waterfall

```
waterfall :: x -> (x -> Promise x) -> Promise x
```

### transform-promise-either

Bind a promise monad to an either monad. The result is a promise monad. Since we can think of promise as a superset of either in the way it handles errors.

```
transform-promise-either :: Promise x -> (x -> Either y) -> Promise y
```

### ftransform-promise-either

`transform-promise-either`

with its arguments flipped.

```
ftransform-promise-either :: (x -> Either y) -> Promise x -> Promise y
```

### transform-either-promise

Bind an either monad to a promise monad.

```
transform-either-promise :: Either x -> (x -> Promise y) -> Promise y
```

### ftransform-either-promise

`transform-either-promise`

with its arguments flipped.

```
ftransform-either-promise :: (x -> Promise y) -> Either x -> Promise y
```

### to-callback

Convert the promise object to a callback with the signature of `(error, result) -> void`

```
Promise x -> CB x
```

### from-value-callback

Make a promise object from a callback with the signature of `(result) -> void`

, like `fs.exist`

```
Cb x -> Promise x
```

### from-error-value-callback

Make a promise object from a callback with the signature of `(error, result) -> void`

, like `fs.stat`

```
CB x -> Promise x
```

### from-named-callbacks

Make a promise object from `obj`

.

```
String -> String -> obj -> Promise x
```

# Callbacks

These functions are analogous to their promise-based counterparts that are documented above.
But instead of a `Promise`

their last argument is a callback. You can think of curried version of these functions as functions that return a function that takes `callback`

.

```
{callbacks} = require \prelude-ls
```

## Convention

This would be our definition of asynchronous functions:

If function

`f`

returns function`g`

and`g`

takes a`callback`

as its only argument; then`f`

is an asynchronous function.

Our callbacks will always receive two parameters: `(error, result)`

.

Here `CB a`

stands for a callback function with signature: `(err, a) -> void`

You can get the result of an asynchronous function (with a `callback`

of type of `CB a`

) by:

```
(err, a) <- f
```

## Composition of Asynchronous Actions

### returnA

Inject a value into an asynchronous action.

```
returnA :: x -> CB x
```

### fmapA

Map a normal function over an asynchronous action.

```
fmapA :: (x -> y) -> CB x -> CB y
```

### ffmapA

fmapA with its arguments flipped

```
ffmapA :: CB x -> (x -> y) -> CB y
```

### bindA

Sequentially compose two asynchronous actions, passing the value produced by the first as an argument to the second.

```
bindA :: CB x -> (x -> CB y) -> CB y
```

### fbindA

bindA with its arguments flipped

```
fbindA :: (x -> CB y) -> CB x -> CB y
```

### kcompA

Similar to Left-to-right Kleisli composition, `kcompA`

composes
two asynchronous actions passing the value produced
by the first as an argument to the second. The result is a new
asynchronous function that takes the argument of the first function.

```
kcompA :: (x -> CB y) -> (y -> CB z) -> (x -> CB z)
```

### foldA

The `foldA`

function is analogous to `foldl`

, except that its result is
encapsulated in an asynchronous callback.

```
foldA :: (a -> b -> m a) -> a -> [b] -> m a
```

### sequenceA

Evaluate each action in the sequence from left to right, and collect the results.

```
sequenceA :: [CB x] -> CB [x]
```

### filterA

Filter the list by applying the asynchronous predicate function.

```
filterA :: (x -> CB Boolean) -> [x] -> CB [x]
```

## Either

### returnE

Inject a value into an either action.

```
returnE :: x -> Either x
```

### fmapE

```
fmapE :: (x -> y) -> Either x -> Either y
```

### fmapE

```
ffmapE :: Either x -> (x -> y) -> Either y
```

### bindE

```
bindE :: Either x -> (x -> Either y) -> Either y
```

### bindE

```
bindE :: (x -> Either y) -> Either x -> Either y
```

### kcompE

Left to right Kleisli composition

```
kcompE :: (x -> Either y) -> (y -> Either z) -> (x -> Either z)
```

### foldE

```
foldE :: (a -> b -> Either a) -> a -> [b] -> Either a
```

### sequenceE

```
sequenceE :: [Either x] -> Either [x]
```

### transformAE

```
transformAE :: CB x -> (x -> Either y) -> CB y
```

### ftransformAE

```
ftransformAE :: (x -> Either y) -> CB x -> CB y
```

### transformEA

```
transformEA :: Either x -> (x -> CB y) -> CB y
```

### ftransformEA

```
ftransformEA :: (x -> CB y) -> Either x -> CB y
```

# Lists

## Map

### parallel-map

```
parallel-map :: (a -> CB b) -> [a] -> CB [b]
```

### serial-map

Serial Asynchronous Map

```
serial-map :: (a -> CB b) -> [a] -> CB [b]
```

### parallel-map-limited

Similar to `parallel-map`

, only no more than
`limit`

iterators will be simultaneously running at any time.

```
parallel-map-limited :: Int -> (x -> CB y) -> [x] -> CB [y]
```

## Filter

### parallel-filter

```
parallel-filter :: (x -> CB Boolean) -> [x] -> CB [x]
```

### serial-filter

```
serial-filter :: (x -> CB Boolean) -> [x] -> CB [x]
```

### parallel-limited-filter

```
parallel-limited-filter :: Int -> (x -> CB Boolean) -> [x] -> CB x
```

## Any, All, Find

### parallel-any

```
parallel-any :: (x -> CB Boolean) -> [x] -> CB Boolean
```

### serial-any

serial-any :: (x -> CB Boolean) -> [x] -> CB Boolean

### parallel-limited-any

```
parallel-limited-any :: Int -> (x -> CB Boolean) -> [x] -> CB Boolean
```

### parallel-all

```
parallel-all :: (x -> CB Boolean) -> [x] -> CB Boolean
```

### serial-all

```
serial-all :: (x -> CB Boolean) -> [x] -> CB Boolean
```

### parallel-limited-all

```
parallel-limited-all :: Int -> (x -> CB Boolean) -> [x] -> CB Boolean
```

### parallel-find

```
paralel-find :: (x -> CB Boolean) -> [x] -> CB x
```

### serial-find

```
serial-find :: (x -> CB Boolean) -> [x] -> CB x
```

## Sort

### parallel-sort-by

Sorts a list using the inputted function for making the comparison between the items.

```
parallel-sort-by :: (a -> CB b) -> [a] -> CB [a]
```

### parallel-sort-with

Takes a binary function which compares two items and returns either a positive number, 0, or a negative number, and sorts the inputted list using that function.

```
parallel-sort-with :: (a -> a -> CB i) -> [a] -> CB [a]
```

## Control Flow

### serial-sequence

```
serial-sequence :: [CB x] -> CB [x]
```

### parallel-sequence

Run its sole input (a tasks array of functions) in parallel, without waiting until the previous function has completed. If any of the functions pass an error to its callback, the main callback is immediately called with the value of the error. Once the tasks have completed, the results are passed to the final callback as an array.

```
parallel-sequence :: [CB x] -> CB [x]
```

### parallel-limited-sequence

```
parallel-limited-sequence :: Int -> [CB x] -> CB [x]
```

### parallel-apply-each

```
parallel-apply-each :: x -> [x -> CB y] -> CB [y]
```

### serial-apply-each

```
serial-apply-each :: x -> [x -> CB y] -> CB [y]
```

### parallel-limited-apply-each

```
parallel-limited-apply-each :: x -> [x -> CB y] -> CB [y]
```

### waterfall

```
waterfall :: x -> (x -> CB x) -> CB x
```

### serial-fold

```
serial-fold :: (a -> b -> m a) -> a -> [b] -> m a
```