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Appium Flutter Driver

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Appium Flutter Driver is a test automation tool for Flutter apps on multiple platforms/OSes. Appium Flutter Driver is part of the Appium mobile test automation tool maintained by community. Feel free to create PRs to fix issues/improve this driver.

All contributions, including non-code, are welcome! See TODO list below.

Flutter Driver vs Appium Flutter Driver

Even though Flutter comes with superb integration test support, Flutter Driver, it does not fit some specific use cases, such as

  • writing test in other languages than Dart
  • running integration test for Flutter app with embedded webview or native view, or existing native app with embedded Flutter view
  • running test on multiple devices simultaneously
  • running integration test on device farms, such as Sauce Labs, HeadSpin, AWS, Firebase

Under the hood, Appium Flutter Driver use the Dart VM Service Protocol with extension ext.flutter.driver, similar to Flutter Driver, to control the Flutter app-under-test (AUT).

Appium Flutter Driver or Appium UiAutomator2/XCUITest driver

  • Appium Flutter driver manages the application under test and the device under test via Appium UiAutomator2/XCUITest drivers
    • FLUTTER context sends commands to the Dart VM directly over the observatory URL
      • Newer Flutter versions expose its accessibility labels to the system's accessibility features. It means you can find some Flutter elements and can interact with them over accessibility_id etc in the vanilla Appium UiAutomator2/XCUITest drivers, although some elements require over the Dart VM
    • NATIVE_APP context is the same as regular Appium UiAutomator2/XCUITest driver
    • WEBVIEW context manages the WebView contents over Appium UiAutomator2/XCUITest driver
  • Appium UiAutomator2/XCUITest drivers must be sufficient to achieve automation if the application under test had semanticLabel properly. Then, accessibility mechanism in each OS can expose elements for Appium though OS's accessibility features
    • For example, Key does not work in the Appium UiAutomator2/XCUITest drivers, but can work in the Appium Flutter Driver


  • In order to use appium-flutter-driver, we need to use appium version 1.16.0 or higher.
  • The Appium Flutter Driver version 1.0 and higher require Appium 2.0.0.
    • 1.8.0+ require over Appium 2.0.0-beta.46

With Appium 2 (appium@next):

appium driver install --source=npm appium-flutter-driver

Note Please use the latest flutter driver with appium 2 for Flutter v3

Appium 1.x could have flutter driver, but the version is deprecated.


If you are unfamiliar with running Appium tests, start with Appium Getting Starting first.

Your Flutter app-under-test (AUT) must be compiled in debug or profile mode, because Flutter Driver does not support running in release mode.. Also, ensure that your Flutter AUT has enableFlutterDriverExtension() before runApp. Then, please make sure your app imported flutter_driver package as its devDependencies as well.

This snippet, taken from example dir, is a script written as an appium client with webdriverio, and assumes you have appium server (with appium-flutter-driver installed) running on the same host and default port (4723). For more info, see example's


  • Flutter context does not support page source
    • Please use getRenderTree command instead
  • You can send appium-xcuitest-driver/appium-uiautomator2-driver commands in NATIVE_APP context
  • scrollUntilVisible command : An expectation for checking that an element, known to be present on the widget tree, is visible. Using waitFor to wait element
  • scrollUntilTapable command : An expectation for checking an element is visible and enabled such that you can click it. Using waitTapable to wait element
  • driver.activateApp(appId) starts the given app and attaches to the observatory URL in the FLUTTER context. The method may raise an exception if no observaotry URL was found. The typical case is the appId is already running. Then, the driver will fail to find the observatory URL.
  • getClipboard and setClipboard depend on each NATIVE_APP context behavior

Desired Capabilities for flutter driver only

Capability Description Example Values
appium:retryBackoffTime The time wait for socket connection retry for get flutter session (default 3000ms) 500
appium:maxRetryCount The count for socket connection retry for get flutter session (default 30) 20
appium:observatoryWsUri The URL to attach to the Dart VM. The appium flutter driver finds the WebSocket URL from the device log by default. You can skip the finding the URL process by specifying this capability. Then, this driver attempt to establish a WebSocket connection against the given WebSocket URL. Note that this capability expects the URL is ready for access by outside an appium session. This flutter driver does not do port-forwarding with this capability. You may need to coordinate the port-forwarding as well. 'ws://'
appium:skipPortForward Whether skip port forwarding from the flutter driver local to the device under test with observatoryWsUri capability. It helps you to manage the application under test, the observatory URL and the port forwarding configuration. The default is true. true, false


Appium Flutter Driver allow you to send flutter_driver commands to the Dart VM in FLUTTER context, but it does not support native Android/iOS automation. Instead, NATIVE_APP context provide you to use UIA2 driver for Android and XCUITest for iOS automation. WEBVIEW_XXXX cntext helps WebView testing.

Thus, you can automate proper application target by switching its context with FLUTTER, NATIVE_APP and WEBVIEW_XXXX.


const wdio = require('webdriverio');
const assert = require('assert');
const { byValueKey } = require('appium-flutter-finder');

const osSpecificOps = process.env.APPIUM_OS === 'android' ? {
  'platformName': 'Android',
  'appium:deviceName': 'Pixel 2',
  // @todo support non-unix style path
  app: __dirname +  '/../apps/app-free-debug.apk',
}: process.env.APPIUM_OS === 'ios' ? {
  'platformName': 'iOS',
  'appium:platformVersion': '12.2',
  'appium:deviceName': 'iPhone X',
  'appium:noReset': true,
  'appium:app': __dirname +  '/../apps/',

} : {};

const opts = {
  port: 4723,
  capabilities: {
    'appium:automationName': 'Flutter',
    'appium:retryBackoffTime': 500

(async () => {
  const counterTextFinder = byValueKey('counter');
  const buttonFinder = byValueKey('increment');

  const driver = await wdio.remote(opts);

  if (process.env.APPIUM_OS === 'android') {
    await driver.switchContext('NATIVE_APP');
    await (await driver.$('~fab')).click();
    await driver.switchContext('FLUTTER');
  } else {
    console.log('Switching context to `NATIVE_APP` is currently only applicable to Android demo app.')

  assert.strictEqual(await driver.getElementText(counterTextFinder), '0');

  await driver.elementClick(buttonFinder);
  await driver.touchAction({
    action: 'tap',
    element: { elementId: buttonFinder }

  assert.strictEqual(await driver.getElementText(counterTextFinder), '2');





Icon Description
integrated to CI
🆗 manual tested without CI
⚠️ available without manual tested


Flutter Driver API Status WebDriver example
ancestor 🆗
bySemanticsLabel 🆗
byTooltip 🆗 byTooltip('Increment')
byType 🆗 byType('TextField')
byValueKey 🆗 byValueKey('counter')
descendant 🆗
pageBack 🆗 pageBack()
text 🆗 byText('foo')


The below WebDriver example is by webdriverio. flutter: prefix commands are mobile: command in appium for Android and iOS. Please replace them properly with your client.

Flutter API Status WebDriver example (JavaScript, webdriverio) Scope
FlutterDriver.connectedTo 🆗 wdio.remote(opts) Session
checkHealth 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:checkHealth') Session
clearTextbox 🆗 driver.elementClear(find.byType('TextField')) Session
clearTimeline 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:clearTimeline') Session
close 🆗 driver.deleteSession() Session
enterText 🆗 driver.elementSendKeys(find.byType('TextField'), 'I can enter text') (no focus required)
driver.elementClick(find.byType('TextField')); driver.execute('flutter:enterText', 'I can enter text') (focus required by tap/click first)
forceGC 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:forceGC') Session
getBottomLeft 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:getBottomLeft', buttonFinder) Widget
getBottomRight 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:getBottomRight', buttonFinder) Widget
getCenter 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:getCenter', buttonFinder) Widget
getRenderObjectDiagnostics 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:getRenderObjectDiagnostics', counterTextFinder) Widget
getRenderTree 🆗 driver.execute('flutter: getRenderTree') Session
getSemanticsId 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:getSemanticsId', counterTextFinder) Widget
getText 🆗 driver.getElementText(counterTextFinder) Widget
getTopLeft 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:getTopLeft', buttonFinder) Widget
getTopRight 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:getTopRight', buttonFinder) Widget
getVmFlags Session
getWidgetDiagnostics Widget
requestData 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:requestData', json.dumps({"deepLink": "myapp://item/id1"})) Session
runUnsynchronized Session
setFrameSync 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:setFrameSync', bool , durationMilliseconds) Session
screenshot 🆗 driver.takeScreenshot() Session
screenshot 🆗 driver.saveScreenshot('a.png') Session
scroll 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:scroll', find.byType('ListView'), {dx: 50, dy: -100, durationMilliseconds: 200, frequency: 30}) Widget
scrollIntoView 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:scrollIntoView', find.byType('TextField'), {alignment: 0.1})
driver.execute('flutter:scrollIntoView', find.byType('TextField'), {alignment: 0.1, timeout: 30000})
scrollUntilVisible 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:scrollUntilVisible', find.byType('ListView'), {item:find.byType('TextField'), dxScroll: 90, dyScroll: -400});, driver.execute('flutter:scrollUntilVisible', find.byType('ListView'), {item:find.byType('TextField'), dxScroll: 90, dyScroll: -400, waitTimeoutMilliseconds: 20000}); Widget
scrollUntilTapable 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:scrollUntilTapable', find.byType('ListView'), {item:find.byType('TextField'), dxScroll: 90, dyScroll: -400});, driver.execute('flutter:scrollUntilTapable', find.byType('ListView'), {item:find.byType('TextField'), dxScroll: 90, dyScroll: -400, waitTimeoutMilliseconds: 20000}); Widget
setSemantics Session
setTextEntryEmulation 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:setTextEntryEmulation', false) Session
startTracing Session
stopTracingAndDownloadTimeline Session
tap 🆗 driver.elementClick(buttonFinder) Widget
tap 🆗 driver.touchAction({action: 'tap', element: {elementId: buttonFinder}}) Widget
traceAction Session
waitFor 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:waitFor', buttonFinder, 100) Widget
waitForAbsent 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:waitForAbsent', buttonFinder) Widget
waitForTappable 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:waitForTappable', buttonFinder) Widget
waitUntilNoTransientCallbacks Widget
- 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:getVMInfo') System
- 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:setIsolateId', 'isolates/2978358234363215') System
- 🆗 driver.execute('flutter:getIsolate', 'isolates/2978358234363215') or driver.execute('flutter:getIsolate') System
- 🆗 setContext Appium
- 🆗 getCurrentContext Appium
- 🆗 getContexts Appium
🆗 driver.execute('flutter:longTap', find.byValueKey('increment'), {durationMilliseconds: 10000, frequency: 30}) Widget
🆗 driver.execute('flutter:waitForFirstFrame') Widget
- 🆗 activateApp('appId') Appium
- 🆗 terminateApp('appId') Appium
- 🆗 installApp(appPath, options) Appium
- 🆗 getClipboard Appium
- 🆗 setClipboard Appium

Change the flutter engine attache to

  1. Get available isolate ids
    • id key in the value of isolates by flutter:getVMInfo
  2. Set the id via setIsolateId
# ruby
info = driver.execute_script 'flutter:getVMInfo'
# Change the target engine to "info['isolates'][0]['id']"
driver.execute_script 'flutter:setIsolateId', info['isolates'][0]['id']

Check current isolate, or a particular isolate

  1. Get available isolates
    • driver.execute('flutter:getVMInfo').isolates (JS)
  2. Get a particular isolate or current isolate
    • Current isolate: driver.execute('flutter:getIsolate') (JS)
    • Particular isolate: driver.execute('flutter:getIsolate', 'isolates/2978358234363215') (JS)


Items which may be worth to add.

Test Status

Release appium-flutter-driver

$ cd driver
$ sh
$ npm version <major|minor|patch>
$ git commit -am 'chore: bump version'
$ git tag <version number> # e.g. git tag v0.0.32
$ git push origin v0.0.32
$ git push origin main
$ npm publish

Java implementation


npm i appium-flutter-driver

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