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An APL compiler written in CoffeeScript
Runs on node.js or in a browser
Uses Jison for parsing
Literate source code
Mobile demo (still a web page, but intended for small touchscreens)
APL is an ancient array-oriented weird-looking elegant programming language.
ancient: It was conceived in the 1960s based on a Harvard professor's mathematical notation, which he published in a book titled "A Programming Language", hence the name.
array-oriented: Every variable is viewed as a multi-dimensional array; in particular, scalars are 0-dimensional arrays. When a function is applied on an array, it acts on all items simultaneously.
weird-looking: APL uses non-ASCII characters for most of its built-in functions. When it was invented, ASCII hadn't yet been established as a standard anyway.
elegant: APL code tends to be very concise and expressive. Many well-known algorithms can literally fit into several characters. What is more, code is agnostic about the number of dimensions, so it often works without modification for higher-dimensional inputs.
This project is an attempt to breathe back life into APL for a modern execution environment, namely the ubiquitous JavaScript.
1 2 3 + 4 5 6 ⍝ returns 5 7 9; the array 1 2 3 added to 4 5 6, item by item
7 + 4 5 6 ⍝ returns 11 12 13; the scalar 7 is extended to match the length of 4 5 6
¯1 ⍝ the high minus (¯) is used for negative numbers
2j3 4j5 ⍝ complex numbers; AjB stands for A+iB in the usual math notation
2 × 3 + 4 ⍝ = 2 × (3 + 4); all functions have the same precedence and are right-associative
⍳ 5 ⍝ the iota, or index generator; returns 0 1 2 3 4
3 ≤ 4 ⍝ returns 1; integers 0 and 1 are used as booleans
3 ≤ ⍳ 5 ⍝ returns 0 0 0 1 1; the 3 is compared against each item in ⍳5
2 3 ⍴ ⍳ 6 ⍝ a matrix with 0 1 2 in the first row and 3 4 5 in the second
6 ? 49 ⍝ randomly select 6 distinct numbers between 0 and 48
+/ 3 5 8 ⍝ 16, slash is the "reduce" operator, so plus-slash means "sum"
+/[k] A ⍝ summation along the k-th axis
A +.× B ⍝ matrix multiplication; . is an operator, it gives the inner product of two functions
⌊3.14 ⍝ 3; functions have double meaning; e.g. with only one (right) arg, ⌊ means "floor"
7⌊5 ⍝ 5; with 2 args it means "minimum"; 1-arg is said to be "monadic", 2-arg "dyadic"
⍝ Lambda expressions
f ← {⍺+2×⍵} ⍝ ⍺ and ⍵ are the left and right formal parameters
5 f 3 ⍝ would return 11
⍝ Map, filter, reduce
a ← 1 2 3 4
{1+3×⍵} a ⍝ map; simply apply the function on the array; returns 4 7 10 13
({⍵>2} a) / a ⍝ filter; returns 3 4; note that here / is used as a function, not operator
{⍺×⍵} / a ⍝ reduce; returns 24; here / is an operator, it takes a function on the left
×/a ⍝ same as {⍺×⍵}/a
{(⍺×t)+⍵} / a ⍝ evaluate polynomial with coefficients a at point t
⍝ Head and tail
a ← 5 6 7 8
1 ↑ a ⍝ returns 5; pronounced "one take of a"
1 ↓ a ⍝ returns 6 7 8; pronounced "one drop of a"
⍝ The index origin is fixed at 0
⎕IO ⍝ returns 0
⎕IO ← 1 ⍝ gives an error
⍝ Embedded JavaScript:
3 + «Math.sqrt(25)» ⍝ returns 8
⍝ Computed variables are syntactically indistinguishable from other variables:
r←3 ⍝ radius
get_c←{○ r×2} ⍝ circumference
get_S←{○ r⋆2} ⍝ surface
⌊ r c S ⍝ gives 3 18 28 ("⌊" is the floor function)
r←5
⌊ r c S ⍝ gives 5 31 78