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airbnb-style

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Airbnb JavaScript Style Guide() {

A mostly reasonable approach to JavaScript

For the ES5-only guide click here.

Table of Contents

  1. Types
  2. References
  3. Objects
  4. Arrays
  5. Destructuring
  6. Strings
  7. Functions
  8. Arrow Functions
  9. Constructors
  10. Modules
  11. Iterators and Generators
  12. Properties
  13. Variables
  14. Hoisting
  15. Comparison Operators & Equality
  16. Blocks
  17. Comments
  18. Whitespace
  19. Commas
  20. Semicolons
  21. Type Casting & Coercion
  22. Naming Conventions
  23. Accessors
  24. Events
  25. jQuery
  26. ECMAScript 5 Compatibility
  27. ECMAScript 6 Styles
  28. Testing
  29. Performance
  30. Resources
  31. In the Wild
  32. Translation
  33. The JavaScript Style Guide Guide
  34. Chat With Us About Javascript
  35. Contributors
  36. License

Types

  • Primitives: When you access a primitive type you work directly on its value.

    • string
    • number
    • boolean
    • null
    • undefined
    const foo = 1;
    let bar = foo;
     
    bar = 9;
     
    console.log(foo, bar); // => 1, 9 
  • Complex: When you access a complex type you work on a reference to its value.

    • object
    • array
    • function
    const foo = [1, 2];
    const bar = foo;
     
    bar[0] = 9;
     
    console.log(foo[0], bar[0]); // => 9, 9 

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References

  • Use const for all of your references; avoid using var.

Why? This ensures that you can't reassign your references (mutation), which can lead to bugs and difficult to comprehend code.

```javascript
// bad
var a = 1;
var b = 2;

// good
const a = 1;
const b = 2;
```
  • If you must mutate references, use let instead of var.

Why? let is block-scoped rather than function-scoped like var.

```javascript
// bad
var count = 1;
if (true) {
  count += 1;
}

// good, use the let.
let count = 1;
if (true) {
  count += 1;
}
```
  • Note that both let and const are block-scoped.

    // const and let only exist in the blocks they are defined in. 
    {
      let a = 1;
      const b = 1;
    }
    console.log(a); // ReferenceError 
    console.log(b); // ReferenceError 

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Objects

  • Use the literal syntax for object creation.

    // bad 
    const item = new Object();
     
    // good 
    const item = {};
  • Don't use reserved words as keys. It won't work in IE8. More info.

    // bad 
    const superman = {
      default: { clark: 'kent' },
      private: true
    };
     
    // good 
    const superman = {
      defaults: { clark: 'kent' },
      hidden: true
    };
  • Use readable synonyms in place of reserved words.

    // bad 
    const superman = {
      class: 'alien'
    };
     
    // bad 
    const superman = {
      klass: 'alien'
    };
     
    // good 
    const superman = {
      type: 'alien'
    };

  • Use computed property names when creating objects with dynamic property names.

Why? They allow you to define all the properties of an object in one place.

```javascript

function getKey(k) {
  return `a key named ${k}`;
}

// bad
const obj = {
  id: 5,
  name: 'San Francisco',
};
obj[getKey('enabled')] = true;

// good
const obj = {
  id: 5,
  name: 'San Francisco',
  [getKey('enabled')]: true,
};
```

  • Use object method shorthand.

    // bad 
    const atom = {
      value: 1,
     
      addValue: function (value) {
        return atom.value + value;
      },
    };
     
    // good 
    const atom = {
      value: 1,
     
      addValue(value) {
        return atom.value + value;
      },
    };

  • Use property value shorthand.

Why? It is shorter to write and descriptive.

```javascript
const lukeSkywalker = 'Luke Skywalker';

// bad
const obj = {
  lukeSkywalker: lukeSkywalker
};

// good
const obj = {
  lukeSkywalker
};
```
  • Group your shorthand properties at the beginning of your object declaration.

Why? It's easier to tell which properties are using the shorthand.

```javascript
const anakinSkywalker = 'Anakin Skywalker';
const lukeSkywalker = 'Luke Skywalker';

// bad
const obj = {
  episodeOne: 1,
  twoJedisWalkIntoACantina: 2,
  lukeSkywalker,
  episodeThree: 3,
  mayTheFourth: 4,
  anakinSkywalker,
};

// good
const obj = {
  lukeSkywalker,
  anakinSkywalker,
  episodeOne: 1,
  twoJedisWalkIntoACantina: 2,
  episodeThree: 3,
  mayTheFourth: 4,
};
```

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Arrays

  • Use the literal syntax for array creation.

    // bad 
    const items = new Array();
     
    // good 
    const items = [];
  • Use Array#push instead of direct assignment to add items to an array.

    const someStack = [];
     
     
    // bad 
    someStack[someStack.length] = 'abracadabra';
     
    // good 
    someStack.push('abracadabra');

  • Use array spreads ... to copy arrays.

    // bad 
    const len = items.length;
    const itemsCopy = [];
    let i;
     
    for (= 0; i < len; i++) {
      itemsCopy[i] = items[i];
    }
     
    // good 
    const itemsCopy = [...items];
  • To convert an array-like object to an array, use Array#from.

    const foo = document.querySelectorAll('.foo');
    const nodes = Array.from(foo);

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Destructuring

  • Use object destructuring when accessing and using multiple properties of an object.

Why? Destructuring saves you from creating temporary references for those properties.

```javascript
// bad
function getFullName(user) {
  const firstName = user.firstName;
  const lastName = user.lastName;

  return `${firstName} ${lastName}`;
}

// good
function getFullName(obj) {
  const { firstName, lastName } = obj;
  return `${firstName} ${lastName}`;
}

// best
function getFullName({ firstName, lastName }) {
  return `${firstName} ${lastName}`;
}
```
  • Use array destructuring.

    const arr = [1, 2, 3, 4];
     
    // bad 
    const first = arr[0];
    const second = arr[1];
     
    // good 
    const [first, second] = arr;
  • Use object destructuring for multiple return values, not array destructuring.

Why? You can add new properties over time or change the order of things without breaking call sites.

```javascript
// bad
function processInput(input) {
  // then a miracle occurs
  return [left, right, top, bottom];
}

// the caller needs to think about the order of return data
const [left, __, top] = processInput(input);

// good
function processInput(input) {
  // then a miracle occurs
  return { left, right, top, bottom };
}

// the caller selects only the data they need
const { left, right } = processInput(input);
```

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Strings

  • Use single quotes '' for strings.

    // bad 
    const name = "Capt. Janeway";
     
    // good 
    const name = 'Capt. Janeway';
  • Strings longer than 80 characters should be written across multiple lines using string concatenation.

  • Note: If overused, long strings with concatenation could impact performance. jsPerf & Discussion.

    // bad 
    const errorMessage = 'This is a super long error that was thrown because of Batman. When you stop to think about how Batman had anything to do with this, you would get nowhere fast.';
     
    // bad 
    const errorMessage = 'This is a super long error that was thrown because \
    of Batman. When you stop to think about how Batman had anything to do \
    with this, you would get nowhere \
    fast.';
     
    // good 
    const errorMessage = 'This is a super long error that was thrown because ' +
      'of Batman. When you stop to think about how Batman had anything to do ' +
      'with this, you would get nowhere fast.';

  • When programmatically building up strings, use template strings instead of concatenation.

Why? Template strings give you a readable, concise syntax with proper newlines and string interpolation features.

```javascript
// bad
function sayHi(name) {
  return 'How are you, ' + name + '?';
}

// bad
function sayHi(name) {
  return ['How are you, ', name, '?'].join();
}

// good
function sayHi(name) {
  return `How are you, ${name}?`;
}
```

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Functions

  • Use function declarations instead of function expressions.

Why? Function declarations are named, so they're easier to identify in call stacks. Also, the whole body of a function declaration is hoisted, whereas only the reference of a function expression is hoisted. This rule makes it possible to always use Arrow Functions in place of function expressions.

```javascript
// bad
const foo = function () {
};

// good
function foo() {
}
```
  • Function expressions:

    // immediately-invoked function expression (IIFE) 
    (() => {
      console.log('Welcome to the Internet. Please follow me.');
    })();
  • Never declare a function in a non-function block (if, while, etc). Assign the function to a variable instead. Browsers will allow you to do it, but they all interpret it differently, which is bad news bears.

  • Note: ECMA-262 defines a block as a list of statements. A function declaration is not a statement. Read ECMA-262's note on this issue.

    // bad 
    if (currentUser) {
      function test() {
        console.log('Nope.');
      }
    }
     
    // good 
    let test;
    if (currentUser) {
      test = () => {
        console.log('Yup.');
      };
    }
  • Never name a parameter arguments. This will take precedence over the arguments object that is given to every function scope.

    // bad 
    function nope(name, options, arguments) {
      // ...stuff... 
    }
     
    // good 
    function yup(name, options, args) {
      // ...stuff... 
    }

  • Never use arguments, opt to use rest syntax ... instead.

Why? ... is explicit about which arguments you want pulled. Plus rest arguments are a real Array and not Array-like like arguments.

```javascript
// bad
function concatenateAll() {
  const args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments);
  return args.join('');
}

// good
function concatenateAll(...args) {
  return args.join('');
}
```

  • Use default parameter syntax rather than mutating function arguments.

    // really bad 
    function handleThings(opts) {
      // No! We shouldn't mutate function arguments. 
      // Double bad: if opts is falsy it'll be set to an object which may 
      // be what you want but it can introduce subtle bugs. 
      opts = opts || {};
      // ... 
    }
     
    // still bad 
    function handleThings(opts) {
      if (opts === void 0) {
        opts = {};
      }
      // ... 
    }
     
    // good 
    function handleThings(opts = {}) {
      // ... 
    }
  • Avoid side effects with default parameters

Why? They are confusing to reason about.

var b = 1;
// bad 
function count(a = b++) {
  console.log(a);
}
count();  // 1 
count();  // 2 
count(3); // 3 
count();  // 3 

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Arrow Functions

  • When you must use function expressions (as when passing an anonymous function), use arrow function notation.

Why? It creates a version of the function that executes in the context of this, which is usually what you want, and is a more concise syntax.

Why not? If you have a fairly complicated function, you might move that logic out into its own function declaration.

```javascript
// bad
[1, 2, 3].map(function (x) {
  return x * x;
});

// good
[1, 2, 3].map((x) => {
  return x * x;
});
```
  • If the function body fits on one line, feel free to omit the braces and use implicit return. Otherwise, add the braces and use a return statement.

Why? Syntactic sugar. It reads well when multiple functions are chained together.

Why not? If you plan on returning an object.

```javascript
// good
[1, 2, 3].map((x) => x * x);

// good
[1, 2, 3].map((x) => {
  return { number: x };
});
```
  • Always use parentheses around the arguments. Omitting the parentheses makes the functions less readable and only works for single arguments.

Why? These declarations read better with parentheses. They are also required when you have multiple parameters so this enforces consistency.

```javascript
// bad
[1, 2, 3].map(x => x * x);

// good
[1, 2, 3].map((x) => x * x);
```

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Constructors

  • Always use class. Avoid manipulating prototype directly.

Why? class syntax is more concise and easier to reason about.

```javascript
// bad
function Queue(contents = []) {
  this._queue = [...contents];
}
Queue.prototype.pop = function() {
  const value = this._queue[0];
  this._queue.splice(0, 1);
  return value;
}


// good
class Queue {
  constructor(contents = []) {
    this._queue = [...contents];
  }
  pop() {
    const value = this._queue[0];
    this._queue.splice(0, 1);
    return value;
  }
}
```
  • Use extends for inheritance.

Why? It is a built-in way to inherit prototype functionality without breaking instanceof.

```javascript
// bad
const inherits = require('inherits');
function PeekableQueue(contents) {
  Queue.apply(this, contents);
}
inherits(PeekableQueue, Queue);
PeekableQueue.prototype.peek = function() {
  return this._queue[0];
}

// good
class PeekableQueue extends Queue {
  peek() {
    return this._queue[0];
  }
}
```
  • Methods can return this to help with method chaining.

    // bad 
    Jedi.prototype.jump = function() {
      this.jumping = true;
      return true;
    };
     
    Jedi.prototype.setHeight = function(height) {
      this.height = height;
    };
     
    const luke = new Jedi();
    luke.jump(); // => true 
    luke.setHeight(20); // => undefined 
     
    // good 
    class Jedi {
      jump() {
        this.jumping = true;
        return this;
      }
     
      setHeight(height) {
        this.height = height;
        return this;
      }
    }
     
    const luke = new Jedi();
     
    luke.jump()
      .setHeight(20);
  • It's okay to write a custom toString() method, just make sure it works successfully and causes no side effects.

    class Jedi {
      contructor(options = {}) {
        this.name = options.name || 'no name';
      }
     
      getName() {
        return this.name;
      }
     
      toString() {
        return `Jedi - ${this.getName()}`;
      }
    }

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Modules

  • Always use modules (import/export) over a non-standard module system. You can always transpile to your preferred module system.

Why? Modules are the future, let's start using the future now.

```javascript
// bad
const AirbnbStyleGuide = require('./AirbnbStyleGuide');
module.exports = AirbnbStyleGuide.es6;

// ok
import AirbnbStyleGuide from './AirbnbStyleGuide';
export default AirbnbStyleGuide.es6;

// best
import { es6 } from './AirbnbStyleGuide';
export default es6;
```
  • Do not use wildcard imports.

Why? This makes sure you have a single default export.

```javascript
// bad
import * as AirbnbStyleGuide from './AirbnbStyleGuide';

// good
import AirbnbStyleGuide from './AirbnbStyleGuide';
```
  • And do not export directly from an import.

Why? Although the one-liner is concise, having one clear way to import and one clear way to export makes things consistent.

```javascript
// bad
// filename es6.js
export { es6 as default } from './airbnbStyleGuide';

// good
// filename es6.js
import { es6 } from './AirbnbStyleGuide';
export default es6;
```

⬆ back to top

Iterators and Generators

  • Don't use iterators. Prefer JavaScript's higher-order functions like map() and reduce() instead of loops like for-of.

Why? This enforces our immutable rule. Dealing with pure functions that return values is easier to reason about than side-effects.

```javascript
const numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

// bad
let sum = 0;
for (let num of numbers) {
  sum += num;
}

sum === 15;

// good
let sum = 0;
numbers.forEach((num) => sum += num);
sum === 15;

// best (use the functional force)
const sum = numbers.reduce((total, num) => total + num, 0);
sum === 15;
```
  • Don't use generators for now.

Why? They don't transpile well to ES5.

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Properties

  • Use dot notation when accessing properties.

    const luke = {
      jedi: true,
      age: 28,
    };
     
    // bad 
    const isJedi = luke['jedi'];
     
    // good 
    const isJedi = luke.jedi;
  • Use subscript notation [] when accessing properties with a variable.

    const luke = {
      jedi: true,
      age: 28,
    };
     
    function getProp(prop) {
      return luke[prop];
    }
     
    const isJedi = getProp('jedi');

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Variables

  • Always use const to declare variables. Not doing so will result in global variables. We want to avoid polluting the global namespace. Captain Planet warned us of that.

    // bad 
    superPower = new SuperPower();
     
    // good 
    const superPower = new SuperPower();
  • Use one const declaration per variable.

    Why? It's easier to add new variable declarations this way, and you never have to worry about swapping out a ; for a , or introducing punctuation-only diffs.

    // bad 
    const items = getItems(),
        goSportsTeam = true,
        dragonball = 'z';
     
    // bad 
    // (compare to above, and try to spot the mistake) 
    const items = getItems(),
        goSportsTeam = true;
        dragonball = 'z';
     
    // good 
    const items = getItems();
    const goSportsTeam = true;
    const dragonball = 'z';
  • Group all your consts and then group all your lets.

Why? This is helpful when later on you might need to assign a variable depending on one of the previous assigned variables.

```javascript
// bad
let i, len, dragonball,
    items = getItems(),
    goSportsTeam = true;

// bad
let i;
const items = getItems();
let dragonball;
const goSportsTeam = true;
let len;

// good
const goSportsTeam = true;
const items = getItems();
let dragonball;
let i;
let length;
```
  • Assign variables where you need them, but place them in a reasonable place.

Why? let and const are block scoped and not function scoped.

```javascript
// good
function() {
  test();
  console.log('doing stuff..');

  //..other stuff..

  const name = getName();

  if (name === 'test') {
    return false;
  }

  return name;
}

// bad - unnessary function call
function(hasName) {
  const name = getName();

  if (!hasName) {
    return false;
  }

  this.setFirstName(name);

  return true;
}

// good
function(hasName) {
  if (!hasName) {
    return false;
  }

  const name = getName();
  this.setFirstName(name);

  return true;
}
```

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Hoisting

  • var declarations get hoisted to the top of their scope, their assignment does not. const and let declarations are blessed with a new concept called Temporal Dead Zones (TDZ). It's important to know why typeof is no longer safe.

    // we know this wouldn't work (assuming there 
    // is no notDefined global variable) 
    function example() {
      console.log(notDefined); // => throws a ReferenceError 
    }
     
    // creating a variable declaration after you 
    // reference the variable will work due to 
    // variable hoisting. Note: the assignment 
    // value of `true` is not hoisted. 
    function example() {
      console.log(declaredButNotAssigned); // => undefined 
      var declaredButNotAssigned = true;
    }
     
    // The interpreter is hoisting the variable 
    // declaration to the top of the scope, 
    // which means our example could be rewritten as: 
    function example() {
      let declaredButNotAssigned;
      console.log(declaredButNotAssigned); // => undefined 
      declaredButNotAssigned = true;
    }
     
    // using const and let 
    function example() {
      console.log(declaredButNotAssigned); // => throws a ReferenceError 
      console.log(typeof declaredButNotAssigned); // => throws a ReferenceError 
      const declaredButNotAssigned = true;
    }
  • Anonymous function expressions hoist their variable name, but not the function assignment.

    function example() {
      console.log(anonymous); // => undefined 
     
      anonymous(); // => TypeError anonymous is not a function 
     
      var anonymous = function() {
        console.log('anonymous function expression');
      };
    }
  • Named function expressions hoist the variable name, not the function name or the function body.

    function example() {
      console.log(named); // => undefined 
     
      named(); // => TypeError named is not a function 
     
      superPower(); // => ReferenceError superPower is not defined 
     
      var named = function superPower() {
        console.log('Flying');
      };
    }
     
    // the same is true when the function name 
    // is the same as the variable name. 
    function example() {
      console.log(named); // => undefined 
     
      named(); // => TypeError named is not a function 
     
      var named = function named() {
        console.log('named');
      }
    }
  • Function declarations hoist their name and the function body.

    function example() {
      superPower(); // => Flying 
     
      function superPower() {
        console.log('Flying');
      }
    }
  • For more information refer to JavaScript Scoping & Hoisting by Ben Cherry.

⬆ back to top

Comparison Operators & Equality

  • Use === and !== over == and !=.

  • Comparison operators are evaluated using coercion with the ToBoolean method and always follow these simple rules:

    • Objects evaluate to true
    • Undefined evaluates to false
    • Null evaluates to false
    • Booleans evaluate to the value of the boolean
    • Numbers evaluate to false if +0, -0, or NaN, otherwise true
    • Strings evaluate to false if an empty string '', otherwise true
    if ([0]) {
      // true 
      // An array is an object, objects evaluate to true 
    }
  • Use shortcuts.

    // bad 
    if (name !== '') {
      // ...stuff... 
    }
     
    // good 
    if (name) {
      // ...stuff... 
    }
     
    // bad 
    if (collection.length > 0) {
      // ...stuff... 
    }
     
    // good 
    if (collection.length) {
      // ...stuff... 
    }
  • For more information see Truth Equality and JavaScript by Angus Croll.

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Blocks

  • Use braces with all multi-line blocks.

    // bad 
    if (test)
      return false;
     
    // good 
    if (test) return false;
     
    // good 
    if (test) {
      return false;
    }
     
    // bad 
    function() { return false; }
     
    // good 
    function() {
      return false;
    }
  • If you're using multi-line blocks with if and else, put else on the same line as your if block's closing brace.

    // bad 
    if (test) {
      thing1();
      thing2();
    }
    else {
      thing3();
    }
     
    // good 
    if (test) {
      thing1();
      thing2();
    } else {
      thing3();
    }

⬆ back to top

Comments

  • Use /** ... */ for multi-line comments. Include a description, specify types and values for all parameters and return values.

    // bad 
    // make() returns a new element 
    // based on the passed in tag name 
    // 
    // @param {String} tag 
    // @return {Element} element 
    function make(tag) {
     
      // ...stuff... 
     
      return element;
    }
     
    // good 
    /**
     * make() returns a new element
     * based on the passed in tag name
     *
     * @param {String} tag 
     * @return {Element} element 
     */
    function make(tag) {
     
      // ...stuff... 
     
      return element;
    }
  • Use // for single line comments. Place single line comments on a newline above the subject of the comment. Put an empty line before the comment.

    // bad 
    const active = true;  // is current tab 
     
    // good 
    // is current tab 
    const active = true;
     
    // bad 
    function getType() {
      console.log('fetching type...');
      // set the default type to 'no type' 
      const type = this._type || 'no type';
     
      return type;
    }
     
    // good 
    function getType() {
      console.log('fetching type...');
     
      // set the default type to 'no type' 
      const type = this._type || 'no type';
     
      return type;
    }
  • Prefixing your comments with FIXME or TODO helps other developers quickly understand if you're pointing out a problem that needs to be revisited, or if you're suggesting a solution to the problem that needs to be implemented. These are different than regular comments because they are actionable. The actions are FIXME -- need to figure this out or TODO -- need to implement.

  • Use // FIXME: to annotate problems.

    class Calculator {
      constructor() {
        // FIXME: shouldn't use a global here 
        total = 0;
      }
    }
  • Use // TODO: to annotate solutions to problems.

    class Calculator {
      constructor() {
        // TODO: total should be configurable by an options param 
        this.total = 0;
      }
    }
 
**[⬆ back to top](#table-of-contents)**
 
 
## Whitespace
 
- Use soft tabs set to 2 spaces.
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  function() {
  ∙∙∙∙const name;
  }
 
  // bad
  function() {
  ∙const name;
  }
 
  // good
  function() {
  ∙∙const name;
  }
  ```
 
- Place 1 space before the leading brace.
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  function test(){
    console.log('test');
  }
 
  // good
  function test() {
    console.log('test');
  }
 
  // bad
  dog.set('attr',{
    age: '1 year',
    breed: 'Bernese Mountain Dog'
  });
 
  // good
  dog.set('attr', {
    age: '1 year',
    breed: 'Bernese Mountain Dog'
  });
  ```
 
- Place 1 space before the opening parenthesis in control statements (`if`, `while` etc.). Place no space before the argument list in function calls and declarations.
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  if(isJedi) {
    fight ();
  }
 
  // good
  if (isJedi) {
    fight();
  }
 
  // bad
  function fight () {
    console.log ('Swooosh!');
  }
 
  // good
  function fight() {
    console.log('Swooosh!');
  }
  ```
 
- Set off operators with spaces.
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  const x=y+5;
 
  // good
  const x = y + 5;
  ```
 
- End files with a single newline character.
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  (function(global) {
    // ...stuff...
  })(this);
  ```
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  (function(global) {
    // ...stuff...
  })(this);↵
  ↵
  ```
 
  ```javascript
  // good
  (function(global) {
    // ...stuff...
  })(this);↵
  ```
 
- Use indentation when making long method chains. Use a leading dot, which
  emphasizes that the line is a method call, not a new statement.
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  $('#items').find('.selected').highlight().end().find('.open').updateCount();
 
  // bad
  $('#items').
    find('.selected').
      highlight().
      end().
    find('.open').
      updateCount();
 
  // good
  $('#items')
    .find('.selected')
      .highlight()
      .end()
    .find('.open')
      .updateCount();
 
  // bad
  const leds = stage.selectAll('.led').data(data).enter().append('svg:svg').class('led', true)
      .attr('width', (radius + margin) * 2).append('svg:g')
      .attr('transform', 'translate(' + (radius + margin) + ',' + (radius + margin) + ')')
      .call(tron.led);
 
  // good
  const leds = stage.selectAll('.led')
      .data(data)
    .enter().append('svg:svg')
      .classed('led', true)
      .attr('width', (radius + margin) * 2)
    .append('svg:g')
      .attr('transform', 'translate(' + (radius + margin) + ',' + (radius + margin) + ')')
      .call(tron.led);
  ```
 
- Leave a blank line after blocks and before the next statement
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  if (foo) {
    return bar;
  }
  return baz;
 
  // good
  if (foo) {
    return bar;
  }
 
  return baz;
 
  // bad
  const obj = {
    foo() {
    },
    bar() {
    },
  };
  return obj;
 
  // good
  const obj = {
    foo() {
    },
 
    bar() {
    },
  };
 
  return obj;
  ```
 
 
**[⬆ back to top](#table-of-contents)**
 
## Commas
 
- Leading commas: **Nope.**
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  const story = [
      once
    , upon
    , aTime
  ];
 
  // good
  const story = [
    once,
    upon,
    aTime,
  ];
 
  // bad
  const hero = {
      firstName: 'Ada'
    , lastName: 'Lovelace'
    , birthYear: 1815
    , superPower: 'computers'
  };
 
  // good
  const hero = {
    firstName: 'Ada',
    lastName: 'Lovelace',
    birthYear: 1815,
    superPower: 'computers',
  };
  ```
 
- Additional trailing comma: **Yup.**
 
> Why? This leads to cleaner git diffs. Also, transpilers like Babel will remove the additional trailing comma in the transpiled code which means you don't have to worry about the [trailing comma problem](es5/README.md#commas) in legacy browsers.
 
  ```javascript
  // bad - git diff without trailing comma
  const hero = {
       firstName: 'Florence',
  -    lastName: 'Nightingale'
  +    lastName: 'Nightingale',
  +    inventorOf: ['coxcomb graph', 'mordern nursing']
  }
 
  // good - git diff with trailing comma
  const hero = {
       firstName: 'Florence',
       lastName: 'Nightingale',
  +    inventorOf: ['coxcomb chart', 'mordern nursing'],
  }
 
  // bad
  const hero = {
    firstName: 'Dana',
    lastName: 'Scully'
  };
 
  const heroes = [
    'Batman',
    'Superman'
  ];
 
  // good
  const hero = {
    firstName: 'Dana',
    lastName: 'Scully',
  };
 
  const heroes = [
    'Batman',
    'Superman',
  ];
  ```
 
**[⬆ back to top](#table-of-contents)**
 
 
## Semicolons
 
- **Yup.**
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  (function() {
    const name = 'Skywalker'
    return name
  })()
 
  // good
  (() => {
    const name = 'Skywalker';
    return name;
  })();
 
  // good (guards against the function becoming an argument when two files with IIFEs are concatenated)
  ;(() => {
    const name = 'Skywalker';
    return name;
  })();
  ```
 
  [Read more](http://stackoverflow.com/a/7365214/1712802).
 
**[⬆ back to top](#table-of-contents)**
 
 
## Type Casting & Coercion
 
- Perform type coercion at the beginning of the statement.
- Strings:
 
  ```javascript
  //  => this.reviewScore = 9;
 
  // bad
  const totalScore = this.reviewScore + '';
 
  // good
  const totalScore = String(this.reviewScore);
  ```
 
- Use `parseInt` for Numbers and always with a radix for type casting.
 
  ```javascript
  const inputValue = '4';
 
  // bad
  const val = new Number(inputValue);
 
  // bad
  const val = +inputValue;
 
  // bad
  const val = inputValue >> 0;
 
  // bad
  const val = parseInt(inputValue);
 
  // good
  const val = Number(inputValue);
 
  // good
  const val = parseInt(inputValue, 10);
  ```
 
- If for whatever reason you are doing something wild and `parseInt` is your bottleneck and need to use Bitshift for [performance reasons](http://jsperf.com/coercion-vs-casting/3), leave a comment explaining why and what you're doing.
 
  ```javascript
  // good
  /**
   * parseInt was the reason my code was slow.
   * Bitshifting the String to coerce it to a
   * Number made it a lot faster.
   */
  const val = inputValue >> 0;
  ```
 
- **Note:** Be careful when using bitshift operations. Numbers are represented as [64-bit values](http://es5.github.io/#x4.3.19), but Bitshift operations always return a 32-bit integer ([source](http://es5.github.io/#x11.7)). Bitshift can lead to unexpected behavior for integer values larger than 32 bits. [Discussion](https://github.com/airbnb/javascript/issues/109). Largest signed 32-bit Int is 2,147,483,647:
 
  ```javascript
  2147483647 >> 0 //=> 2147483647
  2147483648 >> 0 //=> -2147483648
  2147483649 >> 0 //=> -2147483647
  ```
 
- Booleans:
 
  ```javascript
  const age = 0;
 
  // bad
  const hasAge = new Boolean(age);
 
  // good
  const hasAge = Boolean(age);
 
  // good
  const hasAge = !!age;
  ```
 
**[⬆ back to top](#table-of-contents)**
 
 
## Naming Conventions
 
- Avoid single letter names. Be descriptive with your naming.
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  function q() {
    // ...stuff...
  }
 
  // good
  function query() {
    // ..stuff..
  }
  ```
 
- Use camelCase when naming objects, functions, and instances.
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  const OBJEcttsssss = {};
  const this_is_my_object = {};
  function c() {}
 
  // good
  const thisIsMyObject = {};
  function thisIsMyFunction() {}
  ```
 
- Use PascalCase when naming constructors or classes.
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  function user(options) {
    this.name = options.name;
  }
 
  const bad = new user({
    name: 'nope',
  });
 
  // good
  class User {
    constructor(options) {
      this.name = options.name;
    }
  }
 
  const good = new User({
    name: 'yup',
  });
  ```
 
- Use a leading underscore `_` when naming private properties.
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  this.__firstName__ = 'Panda';
  this.firstName_ = 'Panda';
 
  // good
  this._firstName = 'Panda';
  ```
 
- Don't save references to `this`. Use arrow functions or Function#bind.
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  function foo() {
    const self = this;
    return function() {
      console.log(self);
    };
  }
 
  // bad
  function foo() {
    const that = this;
    return function() {
      console.log(that);
    };
  }
 
  // good
  function foo() {
    return () => {
      console.log(this);
    };
  }
  ```
 
- If your file exports a single class, your filename should be exactly the name of the class.
  ```javascript
  // file contents
  class CheckBox {
    // ...
  }
  export default CheckBox;
 
  // in some other file
  // bad
  import CheckBox from './checkBox';
 
  // bad
  import CheckBox from './check_box';
 
  // good
  import CheckBox from './CheckBox';
  ```
 
- Use camelCase when you export-default a function. Your filename should be identical to your function's name.
 
  ```javascript
  function makeStyleGuide() {
  }
 
  export default makeStyleGuide;
  ```
 
- Use PascalCase when you export a singleton / function library / bare object.
 
  ```javascript
  const AirbnbStyleGuide = {
    es6: {
    }
  };
 
  export default AirbnbStyleGuide;
  ```
 
 
**[⬆ back to top](#table-of-contents)**
 
 
## Accessors
 
- Accessor functions for properties are not required.
- If you do make accessor functions use getVal() and setVal('hello').
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  dragon.age();
 
  // good
  dragon.getAge();
 
  // bad
  dragon.age(25);
 
  // good
  dragon.setAge(25);
  ```
 
- If the property is a boolean, use isVal() or hasVal().
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  if (!dragon.age()) {
    return false;
  }
 
  // good
  if (!dragon.hasAge()) {
    return false;
  }
  ```
 
- It's okay to create get() and set() functions, but be consistent.
 
  ```javascript
  class Jedi {
    constructor(options = {}) {
      const lightsaber = options.lightsaber || 'blue';
      this.set('lightsaber', lightsaber);
    }
 
    set(key, val) {
      this[key] = val;
    }
 
    get(key) {
      return this[key];
    }
  }
  ```
 
**[⬆ back to top](#table-of-contents)**
 
 
## Events
 
- When attaching data payloads to events (whether DOM events or something more proprietary like Backbone events), pass a hash instead of a raw value. This allows a subsequent contributor to add more data to the event payload without finding and updating every handler for the event. For example, instead of:
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  $(this).trigger('listingUpdated', listing.id);
 
  ...
 
  $(this).on('listingUpdated', function(e, listingId) {
    // do something with listingId
  });
  ```
 
  prefer:
 
  ```javascript
  // good
  $(this).trigger('listingUpdated', { listingId : listing.id });
 
  ...
 
  $(this).on('listingUpdated', function(e, data) {
    // do something with data.listingId
  });
  ```
 
**[⬆ back to top](#table-of-contents)**
 
 
## jQuery
 
- Prefix jQuery object variables with a `$`.
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  const sidebar = $('.sidebar');
 
  // good
  const $sidebar = $('.sidebar');
  ```
 
- Cache jQuery lookups.
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  function setSidebar() {
    $('.sidebar').hide();
 
    // ...stuff...
 
    $('.sidebar').css({
      'background-color': 'pink'
    });
  }
 
  // good
  function setSidebar() {
    const $sidebar = $('.sidebar');
    $sidebar.hide();
 
    // ...stuff...
 
    $sidebar.css({
      'background-color': 'pink'
    });
  }
  ```
 
- For DOM queries use Cascading `$('.sidebar ul')` or parent > child `$('.sidebar > ul')`. [jsPerf](http://jsperf.com/jquery-find-vs-context-sel/16)
- Use `find` with scoped jQuery object queries.
 
  ```javascript
  // bad
  $('ul', '.sidebar').hide();
 
  // bad
  $('.sidebar').find('ul').hide();
 
  // good
  $('.sidebar ul').hide();
 
  // good
  $('.sidebar > ul').hide();
 
  // good
  $sidebar.find('ul').hide();
  ```
 
**[⬆ back to top](#table-of-contents)**
 
 
## ECMAScript 5 Compatibility
 
- Refer to [Kangax](https://twitter.com/kangax/)'s ES5 [compatibility table](http://kangax.github.com/es5-compat-table/).
 
**[⬆ back to top](#table-of-contents)**
 
## ECMAScript 6 Styles
 
This is a collection of links to the various es6 features.
 
1. [Arrow Functions](#arrow-functions)
1. [Classes](#constructors)
1. [Object Shorthand](#es6-object-shorthand)
1. [Object Concise](#es6-object-concise)
1. [Object Computed Properties](#es6-computed-properties)
1. [Template Strings](#es6-template-literals)
1. [Destructuring](#destructuring)
1. [Default Parameters](#es6-default-parameters)
1. [Rest](#es6-rest)
1. [Array Spreads](#es6-array-spreads)
1. [Let and Const](#references)
1. [Iterators and Generators](#iterators-and-generators)
1. [Modules](#modules)
 
**[⬆ back to top](#table-of-contents)**
 
## Testing
 
- **Yup.**
 
  ```javascript
  function() {
    return true;
  }
  ```
 
**[⬆ back to top](#table-of-contents)**
 
 
## Performance
 
- [On Layout & Web Performance](http://kellegous.com/j/2013/01/26/layout-performance/)
- [String vs Array Concat](http://jsperf.com/string-vs-array-concat/2)
- [Try/Catch Cost In a Loop](http://jsperf.com/try-catch-in-loop-cost)
- [Bang Function](http://jsperf.com/bang-function)
- [jQuery Find vs Context, Selector](http://jsperf.com/jquery-find-vs-context-sel/13)
- [innerHTML vs textContent for script text](http://jsperf.com/innerhtml-vs-textcontent-for-script-text)
- [Long String Concatenation](http://jsperf.com/ya-string-concat)
- Loading...
 
**[⬆ back to top](#table-of-contents)**
 
 
## Resources
 
**Learning ES6**
 
- [Draft ECMA 2015 (ES6) Spec](https://people.mozilla.org/~jorendorff/es6-draft.html)
- [ExploringJS](http://exploringjs.com/)
- [ES6 Compatibility Table](https://kangax.github.io/compat-table/es6/)
- [Comprehensive Overview of ES6 Features](http://es6-features.org/)
 
**Read This**
 
- [Annotated ECMAScript 5.1](http://es5.github.com/)
 
**Tools**
 
- Code Style Linters
  + [JSHint](http://www.jshint.com/) - [Airbnb Style .jshintrc](https://github.com/airbnb/javascript/blob/master/linters/jshintrc)
  + [JSCS](https://github.com/jscs-dev/node-jscs) - [Airbnb Style Preset](https://github.com/jscs-dev/node-jscs/blob/master/presets/airbnb.json)
 
**Other Styleguides**
 
- [Google JavaScript Style Guide](http://google-styleguide.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/javascriptguide.xml)
- [jQuery Core Style Guidelines](http://docs.jquery.com/JQuery_Core_Style_Guidelines)
- [Principles of Writing Consistent, Idiomatic JavaScript](https://github.com/rwldrn/idiomatic.js/)
 
**Other Styles**
 
- [Naming this in nested functions](https://gist.github.com/4135065) - Christian Johansen
- [Conditional Callbacks](https://github.com/airbnb/javascript/issues/52) - Ross Allen
- [Popular JavaScript Coding Conventions on Github](http://sideeffect.kr/popularconvention/#javascript) - JeongHoon Byun
- [Multiple var statements in JavaScript, not superfluous](http://benalman.com/news/2012/05/multiple-var-statements-javascript/) - Ben Alman
 
**Further Reading**
 
- [Understanding JavaScript Closures](http://javascriptweblog.wordpress.com/2010/10/25/understanding-javascript-closures/) - Angus Croll
- [Basic JavaScript for the impatient programmer](http://www.2ality.com/2013/06/basic-javascript.html) - Dr. Axel Rauschmayer
- [You Might Not Need jQuery](http://youmightnotneedjquery.com/) - Zack Bloom & Adam Schwartz
- [ES6 Features](https://github.com/lukehoban/es6features) - Luke Hoban
- [Frontend Guidelines](https://github.com/bendc/frontend-guidelines) - Benjamin De Cock
 
**Books**
 
- [JavaScript: The Good Parts](http://www.amazon.com/JavaScript-Good-Parts-Douglas-Crockford/dp/0596517742) - Douglas Crockford
- [JavaScript Patterns](http://www.amazon.com/JavaScript-Patterns-Stoyan-Stefanov/dp/0596806752) - Stoyan Stefanov
- [Pro JavaScript Design Patterns](http://www.amazon.com/JavaScript-Design-Patterns-Recipes-Problem-Solution/dp/159059908X)  - Ross Harmes and Dustin Diaz
- [High Performance Web Sites: Essential Knowledge for Front-End Engineers](http://www.amazon.com/High-Performance-Web-Sites-Essential/dp/0596529309) - Steve Souders
- [Maintainable JavaScript](http://www.amazon.com/Maintainable-JavaScript-Nicholas-C-Zakas/dp/1449327680) - Nicholas C. Zakas
- [JavaScript Web Applications](http://www.amazon.com/JavaScript-Web-Applications-Alex-MacCaw/dp/144930351X) - Alex MacCaw
- [Pro JavaScript Techniques](http://www.amazon.com/Pro-JavaScript-Techniques-John-Resig/dp/1590597273) - John Resig
- [Smashing Node.js: JavaScript Everywhere](http://www.amazon.com/Smashing-Node-js-JavaScript-Everywhere-Magazine/dp/1119962595) - Guillermo Rauch
- [Secrets of the JavaScript Ninja](http://www.amazon.com/Secrets-JavaScript-Ninja-John-Resig/dp/193398869X) - John Resig and Bear Bibeault
- [Human JavaScript](http://humanjavascript.com/) - Henrik Joreteg
- [Superhero.js](http://superherojs.com/) - Kim Joar Bekkelund, Mads Mobæk, & Olav Bjorkoy
- [JSBooks](http://jsbooks.revolunet.com/) - Julien Bouquillon
- [Third Party JavaScript](http://manning.com/vinegar/) - Ben Vinegar and Anton Kovalyov
- [Effective JavaScript: 68 Specific Ways to Harness the Power of JavaScript](http://amzn.com/0321812182) - David Herman
 
**Blogs**
 
- [DailyJS](http://dailyjs.com/)
- [JavaScript Weekly](http://javascriptweekly.com/)
- [JavaScript, JavaScript...](http://javascriptweblog.wordpress.com/)
- [Bocoup Weblog](http://weblog.bocoup.com/)
- [Adequately Good](http://www.adequatelygood.com/)
- [NCZOnline](http://www.nczonline.net/)
- [Perfection Kills](http://perfectionkills.com/)
- [Ben Alman](http://benalman.com/)
- [Dmitry Baranovskiy](http://dmitry.baranovskiy.com/)
- [Dustin Diaz](http://dustindiaz.com/)
- [nettuts](http://net.tutsplus.com/?s=javascript)
 
**Podcasts**
 
- [JavaScript Jabber](http://devchat.tv/js-jabber/)
 
 
**[⬆ back to top](#table-of-contents)**
 
## In the Wild
 
This is a list of organizations that are using this style guide. Send us a pull request or open an issue and we'll add you to the list.
 
- **Aan Zee**: [AanZee/javascript](https://github.com/AanZee/javascript)
- **Adult Swim**: [adult-swim/javascript](https://github.com/adult-swim/javascript)
- **Airbnb**: [airbnb/javascript](https://github.com/airbnb/javascript)
- **American Insitutes for Research**: [AIRAST/javascript](https://github.com/AIRAST/javascript)
- **Apartmint**: [apartmint/javascript](https://github.com/apartmint/javascript)
- **Avalara**: [avalara/javascript](https://github.com/avalara/javascript)
- **Compass Learning**: [compasslearning/javascript-style-guide](https://github.com/compasslearning/javascript-style-guide)
- **DailyMotion**: [dailymotion/javascript](https://github.com/dailymotion/javascript)
- **Digitpaint** [digitpaint/javascript](https://github.com/digitpaint/javascript)
- **Evernote**: [evernote/javascript-style-guide](https://github.com/evernote/javascript-style-guide)
- **ExactTarget**: [ExactTarget/javascript](https://github.com/ExactTarget/javascript)
- **Flexberry**: [Flexberry/javascript-style-guide](https://github.com/Flexberry/javascript-style-guide)
- **Gawker Media**: [gawkermedia/javascript](https://github.com/gawkermedia/javascript)
- **GeneralElectric**: [GeneralElectric/javascript](https://github.com/GeneralElectric/javascript)
- **GoodData**: [gooddata/gdc-js-style](https://github.com/gooddata/gdc-js-style)
- **Grooveshark**: [grooveshark/javascript](https://github.com/grooveshark/javascript)
- **How About We**: [howaboutwe/javascript](https://github.com/howaboutwe/javascript)
- **InfoJobs**: [InfoJobs/JavaScript-Style-Guide](https://github.com/InfoJobs/JavaScript-Style-Guide)
- **Intent Media**: [intentmedia/javascript](https://github.com/intentmedia/javascript)
- **Jam3**: [Jam3/Javascript-Code-Conventions](https://github.com/Jam3/Javascript-Code-Conventions)
- **JSSolutions**: [JSSolutions/javascript](https://github.com/JSSolutions/javascript)
- **Kinetica Solutions**: [kinetica/javascript](https://github.com/kinetica/javascript)
- **Mighty Spring**: [mightyspring/javascript](https://github.com/mightyspring/javascript)
- **MinnPost**: [MinnPost/javascript](https://github.com/MinnPost/javascript)
- **ModCloth**: [modcloth/javascript](https://github.com/modcloth/javascript)
- **Money Advice Service**: [moneyadviceservice/javascript](https://github.com/moneyadviceservice/javascript)
- **Muber**: [muber/javascript](https://github.com/muber/javascript)
- **National Geographic**: [natgeo/javascript](https://github.com/natgeo/javascript)
- **National Park Service**: [nationalparkservice/javascript](https://github.com/nationalparkservice/javascript)
- **Nimbl3**: [nimbl3/javascript](https://github.com/nimbl3/javascript)
- **Orion Health**: [orionhealth/javascript](https://github.com/orionhealth/javascript)
- **Peerby**: [Peerby/javascript](https://github.com/Peerby/javascript)
- **Razorfish**: [razorfish/javascript-style-guide](https://github.com/razorfish/javascript-style-guide)
- **reddit**: [reddit/styleguide/javascript](https://github.com/reddit/styleguide/tree/master/javascript)
- **REI**: [reidev/js-style-guide](https://github.com/reidev/js-style-guide)
- **Ripple**: [ripple/javascript-style-guide](https://github.com/ripple/javascript-style-guide)
- **SeekingAlpha**: [seekingalpha/javascript-style-guide](https://github.com/seekingalpha/javascript-style-guide)
- **Shutterfly**: [shutterfly/javascript](https://github.com/shutterfly/javascript)
- **StudentSphere**: [studentsphere/javascript](https://github.com/studentsphere/javascript)
- **Target**: [target/javascript](https://github.com/target/javascript)
- **TheLadders**: [TheLadders/javascript](https://github.com/TheLadders/javascript)
- **T4R Technology**: [T4R-Technology/javascript](https://github.com/T4R-Technology/javascript)
- **Userify**: [userify/javascript](https://github.com/userify/javascript)
- **VoxFeed**: [VoxFeed/javascript-style-guide](https://github.com/VoxFeed/javascript-style-guide)
- **Weggo**: [Weggo/javascript](https://github.com/Weggo/javascript)
- **Zillow**: [zillow/javascript](https://github.com/zillow/javascript)
- **ZocDoc**: [ZocDoc/javascript](https://github.com/ZocDoc/javascript)
 
## Translation
 
This style guide is also available in other languages:
 
- ![br](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/gosquared/flags/master/flags/flags/shiny/24/Brazil.png) **Brazilian Portuguese**: [armoucar/javascript-style-guide](https://github.com/armoucar/javascript-style-guide)
- ![bg](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/gosquared/flags/master/flags/flags/shiny/24/Bulgaria.png) **Bulgarian**: [borislavvv/javascript](https://github.com/borislavvv/javascript)
- ![ca](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/fpmweb/javascript-style-guide/master/img/catala.png) **Catalan**: [fpmweb/javascript-style-guide](https://github.com/fpmweb/javascript-style-guide)
- ![tw](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/gosquared/flags/master/flags/flags/shiny/24/Taiwan.png) **Chinese(Traditional)**: [jigsawye/javascript](https://github.com/jigsawye/javascript)
- ![cn](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/gosquared/flags/master/flags/flags/shiny/24/China.png) **Chinese(Simplified)**: [adamlu/javascript-style-guide](https://github.com/adamlu/javascript-style-guide)
- ![fr](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/gosquared/flags/master/flags/flags/shiny/24/France.png) **French**: [nmussy/javascript-style-guide](https://github.com/nmussy/javascript-style-guide)
- ![de](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/gosquared/flags/master/flags/flags/shiny/24/Germany.png) **German**: [timofurrer/javascript-style-guide](https://github.com/timofurrer/javascript-style-guide)
- ![it](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/gosquared/flags/master/flags/flags/shiny/24/Italy.png) **Italian**: [sinkswim/javascript-style-guide](https://github.com/sinkswim/javascript-style-guide)
- ![jp](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/gosquared/flags/master/flags/flags/shiny/24/Japan.png) **Japanese**: [mitsuruog/javacript-style-guide](https://github.com/mitsuruog/javacript-style-guide)
- ![kr](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/gosquared/flags/master/flags/flags/shiny/24/South-Korea.png) **Korean**: [tipjs/javascript-style-guide](https://github.com/tipjs/javascript-style-guide)
- ![pl](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/gosquared/flags/master/flags/flags/shiny/24/Poland.png) **Polish**: [mjurczyk/javascript](https://github.com/mjurczyk/javascript)
- ![ru](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/gosquared/flags/master/flags/flags/shiny/24/Russia.png) **Russian**: [uprock/javascript](https://github.com/uprock/javascript)
- ![es](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/gosquared/flags/master/flags/flags/shiny/24/Spain.png) **Spanish**: [paolocarrasco/javascript-style-guide](https://github.com/paolocarrasco/javascript-style-guide)
- ![th](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/gosquared/flags/master/flags/flags/shiny/24/Thailand.png) **Thai**: [lvarayut/javascript-style-guide](https://github.com/lvarayut/javascript-style-guide)
 
## The JavaScript Style Guide Guide
 
- [Reference](https://github.com/airbnb/javascript/wiki/The-JavaScript-Style-Guide-Guide)
 
## Chat With Us About JavaScript
 
- Find us on [gitter](https://gitter.im/airbnb/javascript).
 
## Contributors
 
- [View Contributors](https://github.com/airbnb/javascript/graphs/contributors)
 
 
## License
 
(The MIT License)
 
Copyright (c) 2014 Airbnb
 
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
'Software'), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
the following conditions:
 
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
 
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED 'AS IS', WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY
CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,
TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE
SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
 
**[⬆ back to top](#table-of-contents)**
 
# };