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    As of 2018-03-03 this module has been renamed and is now deprecated.


    Lightweight reactive DOM components using only vanilla JS data structures (arrays, objects, closures, iterators), based on


    • Use the full expressiveness of ES6/TypeScript to define, annotate & document components
    • Clean, functional component composition and reuse
    • No pre-processing / pre-compilation steps
    • No string parsing / interpolation steps
    • Less verbose than HTML, resulting in smaller file sizes
    • Static components can be distributed as JSON (or dynamically compose components, based on JSON data)
    • Supports SVG, arbitrary elements, attributes, events
    • CSS conversion from JS objects
    • Suitable for server side rendering (by passing the same data structure to's serialize())
    • Fairly fast (see benchmark example below)
    • Only ~10KB minified
    import * as hiccup from "";
    import * as hdom from "";
    // stateless component w/ params
    const greeter = (name) => ["h1.title", "hello ", name];
    // component w/ local state
    const counter = (i = 0) => {
        return () => ["button", { onclick: () => (i++) }, `clicks: ${i}`];
    const app = () => {
        // root component is just a static array
        // instantiate counters w/ different start offsets
        return ["div#app", [greeter, "world"], counter(), counter(100)];
    // start update loop (browser only, see diagram below)
    hdom.start(document.body, app());
    // alternatively apply DOM tree only once
    // (stateful components won't update though)
    hdom.createDOM(document.body, hdom.normalizeTree(app()));
    // alternatively browser or server side HTML serialization
    // (note: does not emit attributes w/ functions as values, i.e. the button "onclick" attribs)
    // <div id="app"><h1 class="title">hello world</h1><button>clicks: 0</button><button>clicks: 100</button></div>

    Live demo | standalone example

    No template engine & no precompilation steps needed, just use the full expressiveness of ES6/TypeScript to define your DOM tree. The additional benefit of using TypeScript is that your UI components can become strongly typed, since they're just normal functions, can use generics, overrides, varargs etc.

    The actual DOM update is based on the minimal edit set of the recursive difference between the old and new DOM trees (both nested JS arrays). Components can be defined as static arrays, closures or objects with life cycle hooks (init, render, release).

    hdom dataflow

    The syntax is inspired by Clojure's Hiccup and Reagent projects, however the latter is a wrapper around React, whereas this library is standalone, more lowlevel & less opinionated.

    If you're interested in using this, please also consider the and packages to integrate app state handling, event streams & reactive value subscriptions. More examples are forthcoming...


    This project is currently still in BETA. The overall "API" is stable, but there's still further work planned on optimization and generalization beyond the standard browser DOM use cases (see #4). Furthermore, the project has been used for several projects in production since 2016.


    yarn add

    Usage examples

    Even though the overall approach should be obvious from the code examples below, it's recommended to first study the reference. It's also important to point out, that this project currently has some differences as to how some attribute and iterables are treated and/or are supported in general. This project also has additional features (e.g. life cycle hooks), which aren't needed for the static serialization use cases of hiccup. Both experiments started in early 2016, but have somewhat evolved independently and require some conceptional synchronization.

    Dataflow graph SVG components

    This is a preview of the upcoming package:

    Source | Live demo

    Todo list

    A fully documented todo list app with undo / redo feature is here:

    Source | Live demo

    Cellular automata

    Source | Live demo

    SVG particles

    Source | Live demo

    JSON based components

    Source | Live demo

    Basic usage patterns

    The code below is also available as standalone project in: /examples/dashboard

    Live demo here

    import { start } from "";
    // static component function to create styled box
    const box = (prefix, body) =>
                style: {
                    display: "inline-block",
                    background: "#ccc",
                    width: "30%",
                    height: "40px",
                    padding: "4px",
                    margin: "2px",
                    "text-align": "center"
            ["strong", prefix], ["br"], body];
    // stateful component function
    const counter = (id, from = 0, step = 1) => () => box(id, (from += step).toLocaleString());
    // dynamic component function (external state, i.e. date)
    const timer = () => box("time", new Date().toLocaleTimeString());
    // application root component closure
    // initializes stateful components
    const app = (() => {
        const users = counter("users");
        const profits = counter("$$$", 1e6, 99);
        return () => ["div", ["h1", "Dashboard"], users, profits, timer];
    // start update loop (RAF)
    window.addEventListener("load", () => start("app", app)); integration

    TODO example forthcoming...


    A stress test benchmark is here: /examples/benchmark

    Live demo here

    Based on user feedback collected via Twitter, performance should be more than acceptable for even quite demanding UIs. In the 192/256 cells configurations this stress test causes approx. 600/800 DOM every single frame, something very unlikely for a typical web app. In Chrome 64 on a MBP2016 this still runs at a pretty stable 30fps (50 frame SMA).


    • Karsten Schmidt


    © 2016 - 2018 Karsten Schmidt // Apache Software License 2.0


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