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    Author message:

    global-package-manager has been renamed to frontend-package-manager


    2.3.0 • Public • Published

    Package manager

    global-package-manager MIT licensed

    Handles the creation, validation, and publication of packages built as part of the Springer Nature Front-End Toolkits.

    Packages are bundles of front-end assets (HTML, CSS, JS, Images) that are published via NPM and used within the Springer Nature ecosystem. It is expected that multiple packages live within one repository (monorepo).

    An example of this package in use can be found in the Springer Nature Front-End Global Toolkit


    $ npm install --save-dev @springernature/global-package-manager

    Installing global-package-manager adds package management exectuables to ./node_modules/.bin/.


    The package manager is configurable to enforce consistency across packages that are created. Below is the default configuration that is supplied for Springer Nature toolkit packages.

    Default configuration

      "scope": "springernature",
      "packagesDirectory": "./packages",
      "changelog": "",
      "allowExtends": false,
      "required": [


    All packages must be published under an organisation scope on NPM. Packages within the Springer Nature ecosystem are published to the company scope and this MUST NOT be changed.


    Packages should be self-contained units of code that all live within a specific directory within your repository.


    All packages MUST have a changelog file in their root directory.


    Can packages in this repository extend other packages


    An array of file paths that MUST appear in any package. There is no need to specify the changelog file here, it is added automatically.

    Extending the default configuration

    You have the ability to override the default configuration, and extend it with a number of other options by providing a package-manager.json file in the root of your repository, in the same location as your package.json file. This user configuration file should take the same format as the default configuration, and can also add the following options:


    Package names can specify a prefix that namespaces them within NPM based on where within the Springer Nature ecosystem they originate.

    For example all Springer Nature packages published via the frontend-global-toolkit use the prefix global, they will appear on NPM as @springernature/global-name-of-component


    A folders object can be added to the config. This contains keys that map to any folder names that are allowed within a package, with their value being an array of allowed file extensions within that folder.

    If the folders key is present then these folders are the only ones allowed (but are optional). The folders can contain any number of sub-folders with no restriction on naming, but the file extensions within these sub-folders must match the array.

    If the folders key is not present then any folders/files are allowed, with no restrictions.

    The following example would allow a folder with the name js that contains files with the extensions .js and .json:

    "folders": {
      "js": [


    All packages that are published MUST be licensed. As packages are published as part of a monorepo the license file should live in the root of the repository, and be referenced in the package.json. If a license key is not found then no packages will be published.


    Three CLI scripts are provided as part of this package. They should all be run from your repository root, in the same location as your package-manager.json and package.json files.

    Package creation

    The package creation script is a CLI based tool that can be used to quickly create a boilerplate new package based on the the configuration. This tool is designed to be run locally within your repository.

    $ ./node_modules/.bin/sn-package-create

    Example from Springer Nature Front-End Global Toolkit

    Package validation

    The package validation script is a CLI based tool that will validate the packages against the configuration and provide output to the CLI. This can be run locally and as part of your CI environment.

    Running this script will validate all the packages in the provided packages directory:

    $ ./node_modules/.bin/sn-package-validate

    Running with the -p or --package argument will validate the package named after the argument:

    $ ./node_modules/.bin/sn-package-validate -p name-of-package

    Running with the -n or --npm argument will validate for publication to NPM. This is designed to validate the publication step on your CI environment and should not be run locally:

    $ ./node_modules/.bin/sn-package-validate -n

    If you are running via NPM Scripts, remember to forward on your arguments using the format npm run <command> [-- <args>]. For example:

    $ npm run validate -- -p name-of-package

    Package publication

    The package publication script is a CLI based tool that will publish new or updated packages to NPM. This is designed to run on your CI environment and should not be run locally.

    $ ./node_modules/.bin/sn-package-publish

    Extending other packages

    If the allowExtends option is set to TRUE then packages within the current repository can extend other (remote) packages from the same scope.

    To extend another package, you need to define the package you wish to extend as a dependency within the package.json file of the local package. This should take the form "extendsPackage": "name@version". In the following example we would extend version 1.0.0 of the package left-pad from NPM:

      "extendsPackage": "left-pad@1.0.0"

    Extending works by merging any files from the dependency package into the local package if they do not already exist. This process is designed to run on your CI environment during the publication stage. Take the following example file structures for a local package, and it's dependency:

      └── view
        └── file.html
      └── package.json
      └── scss
        └── file.scss
      └── js
        └── file.js
      └── package.json

    In this case the folders scss and js are created within the local package, then the files scss/file.scss and js/file.js are copied from the dependency package to create the following file structure:

      └── scss
        └── file.scss
      └── js
        └── file.js
      └── view
        └── file.html
      └── package.json


    At the validation stage, if a package extends another package (the extendsPackage key exists), then validation passes if the allowExtends option is set to TRUE, and the correct version of the specified dependency exists on NPM.


    At the publication stage, an extended package will be published to NPM after the successfull completion of the following steps:

    • A complete list of the files is retrieved from NPM for the dependency package, at the specified version
    • For all files within the dependency package, if a file with the same path is not found within the local package, then the file is copied from the dependency package to the local package

    Continuous Integration

    It is intended that the validation and publication scripts are run on your CI environment to ensure the safe and correct publication of packages.

    The sn-package-publish script expects a valid NPM token that allows you to publish to the specified organisation. this should be stored as an Environment Variable with the name NPM_TOKEN.

    The script also expects the Environment Variable CHANGED_FILES which contains a list of all the files changed within the current commit, seperated with a line-break.

    # Example from .travis.yml
        - CHANGED_FILES=$(git diff --name-only $TRAVIS_COMMIT_RANGE)

    Valid packages within the specified packages directory are identified, and a new version is published using the version number within the package.json file, if that version is greater than the last version published on NPM. Version numbers of 0.0.0 are ignored.

    It is also required that the package changelog has been updated, and appears in the list of CHANGED_FILES, otherwise publication will not happen.


    This package has been written to work with TRAVIS CI and an example of the CI setup can be found in the Springer Nature frontend-global-toolkit:



    npm i @springernature/global-package-manager

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