Nicer Perusal Method


    0.0.3 • Public • Published


    Parser and writer for various spreadsheet formats. Pure-JS cleanroom implementation from official specifications and related documents.

    About this fork

    NOTE: This project is a fork of the original (and awesome) SheetJS/xlsx project. It is extended to enable cell formats to be read from and written to .xlsx workbooks. The intent is to provide a temporary means of using these features in practice, and ultimately to merge this into the primary project. Report any issues to

    For those contributing to this fork:

    • master is the main branch, which follows the original repo to enable a future pull request.
    • beta branch is published to npm and bower to make this fork available for use.

    Supported formats

    Supported read formats:

    • Excel 2007+ XML Formats (XLSX/XLSM)
    • Excel 2007+ Binary Format (XLSB)
    • Excel 2003-2004 XML Format (XML "SpreadsheetML")
    • Excel 97-2004 (XLS BIFF8)
    • Excel 5.0/95 (XLS BIFF5)
    • OpenDocument Spreadsheet (ODS)

    Supported write formats:

    • XLSX
    • CSV (and general DSV)
    • JSON and JS objects (various styles)




    With npm:

    npm install xlsx-style --save

    In the browser:

    <script lang="javascript" src="dist/xlsx.core.min.js"></script>

    With bower:

    bower install js-xlsx-style#beta

    CDNjs automatically pulls the latest version and makes all versions available at

    Optional Modules

    The node version automatically requires modules for additional features. Some of these modules are rather large in size and are only needed in special circumstances, so they do not ship with the core. For browser use, they must be included directly:

    <!-- international support from -->
    <script src="dist/cpexcel.js"></script>
    <!-- ODS support -->
    <script src="dist/ods.js"></script>

    An appropriate version for each dependency is included in the dist/ directory.

    The complete single-file version is generated at dist/xlsx.full.min.js

    ECMAScript 5 Compatibility

    Since xlsx.js uses ES5 functions like Array#forEach, older browsers require Polyfills. This repo and the gh-pages branch include a shim

    To use the shim, add the shim before the script tag that loads xlsx.js:

    <script type="text/javascript" src="/path/to/shim.js"></script>

    Parsing Workbooks

    For parsing, the first step is to read the file. This involves acquiring the data and feeding it into the library. Here are a few common scenarios:

    • node readFile:
    if(typeof require !== 'undefined') XLSX = require('xlsx');
    var workbook = XLSX.readFile('test.xlsx');
    /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
    /* set up XMLHttpRequest */
    var url = "test_files/formula_stress_test_ajax.xlsx";
    var oReq = new XMLHttpRequest();"GET", url, true);
    oReq.responseType = "arraybuffer";
    oReq.onload = function(e) {
      var arraybuffer = oReq.response;
      /* convert data to binary string */
      var data = new Uint8Array(arraybuffer);
      var arr = new Array();
      for(var i = 0; i != data.length; ++i) arr[i] = String.fromCharCode(data[i]);
      var bstr = arr.join("");
      /* Call XLSX */
      var workbook =, {type:"binary"});
      /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
    • HTML5 drag-and-drop using readAsBinaryString:
    /* set up drag-and-drop event */
    function handleDrop(e) {
      var files = e.dataTransfer.files;
      var i, f;
      for (i = 0, f = files[i]; i != files.length; ++i) {
        var reader = new FileReader();
        var name =;
        reader.onload = function(e) {
          var data =;
          /* if binary string, read with type 'binary' */
          var workbook =, {type: 'binary'});
          /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
    drop_dom_element.addEventListener('drop', handleDrop, false);
    • HTML5 input file element using readAsBinaryString:
    function handleFile(e) {
      var files =;
      var i, f;
      for (i = 0, f = files[i]; i != files.length; ++i) {
        var reader = new FileReader();
        var name =;
        reader.onload = function(e) {
          var data =;
          var workbook =, {type: 'binary'});
          /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
    input_dom_element.addEventListener('change', handleFile, false);

    Working with the Workbook

    The full object format is described later in this README.

    This example extracts the value stored in cell A1 from the first worksheet:

    var first_sheet_name = workbook.SheetNames[0];
    var address_of_cell = 'A1';
    /* Get worksheet */
    var worksheet = workbook.Sheets[first_sheet_name];
    /* Find desired cell */
    var desired_cell = worksheet[address_of_cell];
    /* Get the value */
    var desired_value = desired_cell.v;

    This example iterates through every nonempty of every sheet and dumps values:

    var sheet_name_list = workbook.SheetNames;
    sheet_name_list.forEach(function(y) { /* iterate through sheets */
      var worksheet = workbook.Sheets[y];
      for (z in worksheet) {
        /* all keys that do not begin with "!" correspond to cell addresses */
        if(z[0] === '!') continue;
        console.log(y + "!" + z + "=" + JSON.stringify(worksheet[z].v));

    Complete examples:

    Note that older versions of IE does not support HTML5 File API, so the base64 mode is provided for testing. On OSX you can get the base64 encoding with:

    $ <target_file.xlsx base64 | pbcopy

    The node version installs a command line tool xlsx which can read spreadsheet files and output the contents in various formats. The source is available at xlsx.njs in the bin directory.

    Some helper functions in XLSX.utils generate different views of the sheets:

    • XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv generates CSV
    • XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json generates an array of objects
    • XLSX.utils.sheet_to_formulae generates a list of formulae

    Writing Workbooks

    For writing, the first step is to generate output data. The helper functions write and writeFile will produce the data in various formats suitable for dissemination. The second step is to actual share the data with the end point. Assuming workbook is a workbook object:

    • nodejs write to file:
    /* output format determined by filename */
    XLSX.writeFile(workbook, 'out.xlsx');
    /* at this point, out.xlsx is a file that you can distribute */
    • write to binary string (using FileSaver.js):
    /* bookType can be 'xlsx' or 'xlsm' or 'xlsb' */
    var wopts = { bookType:'xlsx', bookSST:false, type:'binary' };
    var wbout = XLSX.write(workbook,wopts);
    function s2ab(s) {
      var buf = new ArrayBuffer(s.length);
      var view = new Uint8Array(buf);
      for (var i=0; i!=s.length; ++i) view[i] = s.charCodeAt(i) & 0xFF;
      return buf;
    /* the saveAs call downloads a file on the local machine */
    saveAs(new Blob([s2ab(wbout)],{type:""}), "test.xlsx")

    Complete examples:


    XLSX is the exposed variable in the browser and the exported node variable

    XLSX.version is the version of the library (added by the build script).

    XLSX.SSF is an embedded version of the format library.

    Parsing functions, read_opts) attempts to parse data.

    XLSX.readFile(filename, read_opts) attempts to read filename and parse.

    Writing functions

    XLSX.write(wb, write_opts) attempts to write the workbook wb

    XLSX.writeFile(wb, filename, write_opts) attempts to write wb to filename


    Utilities are available in the XLSX.utils object:


    • sheet_to_json converts a workbook object to an array of JSON objects.
    • sheet_to_csv generates delimiter-separated-values output
    • sheet_to_formulae generates a list of the formulae (with value fallbacks)

    Cell and cell address manipulation:

    • format_cell generates the text value for a cell (using number formats)
    • {en,de}code_{row,col} convert between 0-indexed rows/cols and A1 forms.
    • {en,de}code_cell converts cell addresses
    • {en,de}code_range converts cell ranges

    Workbook / Worksheet / Cell Object Description

    js-xlsx conforms to the Common Spreadsheet Format (CSF):

    General Structures

    Cell address objects are stored as {c:C, r:R} where C and R are 0-indexed column and row numbers, respectively. For example, the cell address B5 is represented by the object {c:1, r:4}.

    Cell range objects are stored as {s:S, e:E} where S is the first cell and E is the last cell in the range. The ranges are inclusive. For example, the range A3:B7 is represented by the object {s:{c:0, r:2}, e:{c:1, r:6}}. Utils use the following pattern to walk each of the cells in a range:

    for(var R = range.s.r; R <= range.e.r; ++R) {
      for(var C = range.s.c; C <= range.e.c; ++C) {
        var cell_address = {c:C, r:R};

    Cell Object

    Key Description
    v raw value (see Data Types section for more info)
    w formatted text (if applicable)
    t cell type: b Boolean, n Number, e error, s String, d Date
    f cell formula (if applicable)
    r rich text encoding (if applicable)
    h HTML rendering of the rich text (if applicable)
    c comments associated with the cell **
    z number format string associated with the cell (if requested)
    l cell hyperlink object (.Target holds link, .tooltip is tooltip)
    s the style/theme of the cell (if applicable)

    Built-in export utilities (such as the CSV exporter) will use the w text if it is available. To change a value, be sure to delete cell.w (or set it to undefined) before attempting to export. The utilities will regenerate the w text from the number format (cell.z) and the raw value if possible.

    Note: The .z attribute is now deprecated. Use the .s attribute to specify cell styles including number formats. To specify a number format, use s.numFmt, e.g. {v: 42145.822, s: { numFmt: "m/dd/yy"}} described below.

    Data Types

    The raw value is stored in the v field, interpreted based on the t field.

    Type b is the Boolean type. v is interpreted according to JS truth tables

    Type e is the Error type. v holds the number and w holds the common name:

    Value Error Meaning
    0x00 #NULL!
    0x07 #DIV/0!
    0x0F #VALUE!
    0x17 #REF!
    0x1D #NAME?
    0x24 #NUM!
    0x2A #N/A

    Type n is the Number type. This includes all forms of data that Excel stores as numbers, such as dates/times and Boolean fields. Excel exclusively uses data that can be fit in an IEEE754 floating point number, just like JS Number, so the v field holds the raw number. The w field holds formatted text.

    Type d is the Date type, generated only when the option cellDates is passed. Since JSON does not have a natural Date type, parsers are generally expected to store ISO 8601 Date strings like you would get from date.toISOString(). On the other hand, writers and exporters should be able to handle date strings and JS Date objects. Note that Excel disregards the timezone modifier and treats all dates in the local timezone. js-xlsx does not correct for this error.

    Type s is the String type. v should be explicitly stored as a string to avoid possible confusion.

    Worksheet Object

    Each key that does not start with ! maps to a cell (using A-1 notation)

    worksheet[address] returns the cell object for the specified address.

    Special worksheet keys (accessible as worksheet[key], each starting with !):

    • ws['!ref']: A-1 based range representing the worksheet range. Functions that work with sheets should use this parameter to determine the range. Cells that are assigned outside of the range are not processed. In particular, when writing a worksheet by hand, be sure to update the range. For a longer discussion, see

      Functions that handle worksheets should test for the presence of !ref field. If the !ref is omitted or is not a valid range, functions are free to treat the sheet as empty or attempt to guess the range. The standard utilities that ship with this library treat sheets as empty (for example, the CSV output is an empty string).

      When reading a worksheet with the sheetRows property set, the ref parameter will use the restricted range. The original range is set at ws['!fullref']

    • ws['!cols']: array of column properties objects. Column widths are actually stored in files in a normalized manner, measured in terms of the "Maximum Digit Width" (the largest width of the rendered digits 0-9, in pixels). When parsed, the column objects store the pixel width in the wpx field, character width in the wch field, and the maximum digit width in the MDW field.

    • ws['!merges']: array of range objects corresponding to the merged cells in the worksheet. Plaintext utilities are unaware of merge cells. CSV export will write all cells in the merge range if they exist, so be sure that only the first cell (upper-left) in the range is set.

    • ws['!printHeader']: array of row indices for repeating row headers on print, e.g. [1:1] to repeat just the first row.

    The following properties are currently used when generating an XLSX file, but not yet parsed:

    • ws['!rowBreaks']: array of row break points, e.g. [16,32]
    • ws['!colBreaks']: array of col break points, e.g. [8,16]
    • ws['!pageSetup']: `{scale: '100', orientation: 'portrait'||'landscape'}
    • ws['!printHeader']: array of first and last row indexes for repeat header on printing, e.g. [1,1] to repeat just first row
    • ws['!freeze']: string cell reference for breakpoint, e.g. the following will freeze the first row and first column: { xSplit: "1", ySplit: "1", topLeftCell: "B2", activePane: "bottomRight", state: "frozen" }

    Workbook Object

    workbook.SheetNames is an ordered list of the sheets in the workbook

    wb.Sheets[sheetname] returns an object representing the worksheet.

    wb.Props is an object storing the standard properties. The following properties are currently used when generating an XLSX file, but not yet parsed: - title - subject - description - keywords - creator

    wb.Custprops stores custom properties. Since the XLS standard properties deviate from the XLSX standard, XLS parsing stores core properties in both places. .

    Parsing Options

    The exported read and readFile functions accept an options argument:

    Option Name Default Description
    cellFormula true Save formulae to the .f field **
    cellHTML true Parse rich text and save HTML to the .h field
    cellNF false Save number format string to the .z field
    cellStyles false Save style/theme info to the .s field
    cellDates false Store dates as type d (default is n) **
    sheetStubs false Create cell objects for stub cells
    sheetRows 0 If >0, read the first sheetRows rows **
    bookDeps false If true, parse calculation chains
    bookFiles false If true, add raw files to book object **
    bookProps false If true, only parse enough to get book metadata **
    bookSheets false If true, only parse enough to get the sheet names
    bookVBA false If true, expose vbaProject.bin to vbaraw field **
    password "" If defined and file is encrypted, use password **
    • cellFormula option only applies to formats that require extra processing to parse formulae (XLS/XLSB).
    • Even if cellNF is false, formatted text will be generated and saved to .w
    • In some cases, sheets may be parsed even if bookSheets is false.
    • bookSheets and bookProps combine to give both sets of information
    • Deps will be an empty object if bookDeps is falsy
    • bookFiles behavior depends on file type:
      • keys array (paths in the ZIP) for ZIP-based formats
      • files hash (mapping paths to objects representing the files) for ZIP
      • cfb object for formats using CFB containers
    • sheetRows-1 rows will be generated when looking at the JSON object output (since the header row is counted as a row when parsing the data)
    • bookVBA merely exposes the raw vba object. It does not parse the data.
    • cellDates currently does not convert numerical dates to JS dates.
    • Currently only XOR encryption is supported. Unsupported error will be thrown for files employing other encryption methods.

    The defaults are enumerated in bits/84_defaults.js

    Writing Options

    The exported write and writeFile functions accept an options argument:

    Option Name Default Description
    cellDates false Store dates as type d (default is n)
    bookSST false Generate Shared String Table **
    bookType 'xlsx' Type of Workbook ("xlsx" or "xlsm" or "xlsb")
    showGridLines true Show gridlines on all pages
    tabSelected '1' Initial tab selected
    Props null Workbook properties
    • bookSST is slower and more memory intensive, but has better compatibility with older versions of iOS Numbers
    • bookType = 'xlsb' is stubbed and far from complete
    • The raw data is the only thing guaranteed to be saved. Formulae, formatting, and other niceties may not be serialized (pending CSF standardization)
    • cellDates only applies to XLSX output and is not guaranteed to work with third-party readers. Excel itself does not usually write cells with type d so non-Excel tools may ignore the data or blow up in the presence of dates.
    • showGridLines and tabSelected are currently used when generating an XLSX file but not yet parse.
    • Props specifies workbook properties

    Cell Styles

    Cell styles are specified by a style object that roughly parallels the OpenXML structure. The style object has five top-level attributes: fill, font, numFmt, alignment, and border.

    Style Attribute Sub Attributes Values
    fill patternType "solid" or "none"
    fgColor COLOR_SPEC
    bgColor COLOR_SPEC
    font name "Calibri" // default
    sz "11" // font size in points
    color COLOR_SPEC
    bold true or false
    underline true or false
    italic true or false
    strike true or false
    outline true or false
    shadow true or false
    vertAlign true or false
    numFmt "0" // integer index to built in formats, see StyleBuilder.SSF property
    "0.00%" // string matching a built-in format, see StyleBuilder.SSF
    "0.0%" // string specifying a custom format
    "0.00%;\\(0.00%\\);\\-;@" // string specifying a custom format, escaping special characters
    "m/dd/yy" // string a date format using Excel's format notation
    alignment vertical "bottom" or "center" or "top"
    horizontal "bottom" or "center" or "top"
    wrapText true or false
    readingOrder 2 // for right-to-left
    textRotation Number from 0 to 180 or 255 (default is 0)
    90 is rotated up 90 degrees
    45 is rotated up 45 degrees
    135 is rotated down 45 degrees
    180 is rotated down 180 degrees
    255 is special, aligned vertically
    border top { style: BORDER_STYLE, color: COLOR_SPEC }
    bottom { style: BORDER_STYLE, color: COLOR_SPEC }
    left { style: BORDER_STYLE, color: COLOR_SPEC }
    right { style: BORDER_STYLE, color: COLOR_SPEC }
    diagonal { style: BORDER_STYLE, color: COLOR_SPEC }
    diagonalUp true or false
    diagonalDown true or false

    COLOR_SPEC: Colors for fill, font, and border are specified as objects, either:

    • { auto: 1} specifying automatic values
    • { rgb: "FFFFAA00" } specifying a hex ARGB value
    • { theme: "1", tint: "-0.25"} specifying an integer index to a theme color and a tint value (default 0)
    • { indexed: 64} default value for fill.bgColor

    BORDER_STYLE: Border style is a string value which may take on one of the following values:

    • thin
    • medium
    • thick
    • dotted
    • hair
    • dashed
    • mediumDashed
    • dashDot
    • mediumDashDot
    • dashDotDot
    • mediumDashDotDot
    • slantDashDot

    Borders for merged areas are specified for each cell within the merged area. So to apply a box border to a merged area of 3x3 cells, border styles would need to be specified for eight different cells:

    • left borders for the three cells on the left,
    • right borders for the cells on the right
    • top borders for the cells on the top
    • bottom borders for the cells on the left

    Tested Environments

    • NodeJS 0.8, 0.10 (latest release), 0.11.14 (unstable), io.js
    • IE 6/7/8/9/10/11 using Base64 mode (IE10/11 using HTML5 mode)
    • FF 18 using Base64 or HTML5 mode
    • Chrome 24 using Base64 or HTML5 mode

    Tests utilize the mocha testing framework. Travis-CI and Sauce Labs links:

    Test Files

    Test files are housed in another repo.

    Running make init will refresh the test_files submodule and get the files.


    make test will run the node-based tests. To run the in-browser tests, clone the repo and replace the xlsx.js file (then fire up the browser and go to stress.html):

    $ cp xlsx.js ../
    $ cd ../
    $ simplehttpserver # or "python -mSimpleHTTPServer" or "serve"
    $ open -a http://localhost:8000/stress.html

    For a much smaller test, run make test_misc.


    Due to the precarious nature of the Open Specifications Promise, it is very important to ensure code is cleanroom. Consult

    The xlsx.js file is constructed from the files in the bits subdirectory. The build script (run make) will concatenate the individual bits to produce the script. Before submitting a contribution, ensure that running make will produce the xlsx.js file exactly. The simplest way to test is to move the script:

    $ mv xlsx.js
    $ make
    $ diff xlsx.js

    To produce the dist files, run make dist. The dist files are updated in each version release and should not be committed between versions.


    Please consult the attached LICENSE file for details. All rights not explicitly granted by the Apache 2.0 license are reserved by the Original Author.

    It is the opinion of the Original Author that this code conforms to the terms of the Microsoft Open Specifications Promise, falling under the same terms as OpenOffice (which is governed by the Apache License v2). Given the vagaries of the promise, the Original Author makes no legal claim that in fact end users are protected from future actions. It is highly recommended that, for commercial uses, you consult a lawyer before proceeding.


    ISO/IEC 29500:2012(E) "Information technology — Document description and processing languages — Office Open XML File Formats"

    OSP-covered specifications:

    • [MS-XLSB]: Excel (.xlsb) Binary File Format
    • [MS-XLSX]: Excel (.xlsx) Extensions to the Office Open XML SpreadsheetML File Format
    • [MS-OE376]: Office Implementation Information for ECMA-376 Standards Support
    • [MS-CFB]: Compound File Binary File Format
    • [MS-XLS]: Excel Binary File Format (.xls) Structure Specification
    • [MS-ODATA]: Open Data Protocol (OData)
    • [MS-OFFCRYPTO]: Office Document Cryptography Structure
    • [MS-OLEDS]: Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Data Structures
    • [MS-OLEPS]: Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Property Set Data Structures
    • [MS-OSHARED]: Office Common Data Types and Objects Structures
    • [MS-OVBA]: Office VBA File Format Structure
    • [MS-CTXLS]: Excel Custom Toolbar Binary File Format
    • [MS-XLDM]: Spreadsheet Data Model File Format
    • [MS-EXSPXML3]: Excel Calculation Version 2 Web Service XML Schema
    • [XLS]: Microsoft Office Excel 97-2007 Binary File Format Specification

    Open Document Format for Office Applications Version 1.2 (29 September 2011)


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