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    OpenZeppelin OpenZeppelin Contracts Upgradeable

    Docs NPM Package

    This repository hosts the Upgradeable variant of OpenZeppelin Contracts, meant for use in upgradeable contracts. This variant is available as separate package called @openzeppelin/contracts-upgradeable.

    It follows all of the rules for Writing Upgradeable Contracts: constructors are replaced by initializer functions, state variables are initialized in initializer functions, and we additionally check for storage incompatibilities across minor versions.

    ⚠️ Warning

    There will be storage incompatibilities across major versions of this package, which makes it unsafe to upgrade a deployed contract from one major version to another, for example from 3.4.0 to 4.0.0.

    Similarly, it is not safe to upgrade from @openzeppelin/contracts-ethereum-package (a similar previous package) to @openzeppelin/contracts-upgradeable.

    It is strongly encouraged to use these contracts together with a tool that can automatically guarantee the safety of an upgradeable contract, such as the OpenZeppelin Upgrades Plugins.

    🏗️ Want to scale your decentralized application? Check out OpenZeppelin Defender — a secure platform for automating and monitoring your operations.



    $ npm install @openzeppelin/contracts-upgradeable

    OpenZeppelin Contracts features a stable API, which means your contracts won't break unexpectedly when upgrading to a newer minor version.

    An alternative to npm is to use the GitHub repository openzeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts to retrieve the contracts. When doing this, make sure to specify the tag for a release such as v4.5.0, instead of using the master branch.


    The package replicates the structure of the main OpenZeppelin Contracts package, but every file and contract has the suffix Upgradeable.

    -import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC721/ERC721.sol";
    +import "@openzeppelin/contracts-upgradeable/token/ERC721/ERC721Upgradeable.sol";
    -contract MyCollectible is ERC721 {
    +contract MyCollectible is ERC721Upgradeable {

    Constructors are replaced by internal initializer functions following the naming convention __{ContractName}_init. Since these are internal, you must always define your own public initializer function and call the parent initializer of the contract you extend.

    -    constructor() ERC721("MyCollectible", "MCO") {
    +    function initialize() initializer public {
    +        __ERC721_init("MyCollectible", "MCO");


    Use with multiple inheritance requires special care. Initializer functions are not linearized by the compiler like constructors. Because of this, each __{ContractName}_init function embeds the linearized calls to all parent initializers. As a consequence, calling two of these init functions can potentially initialize the same contract twice.

    The function __{ContractName}_init_unchained found in every contract is the initializer function minus the calls to parent initializers, and can be used to avoid the double initialization problem, but doing this manually is not recommended. We hope to be able to implement safety checks for this in future versions of the Upgrades Plugins.

    If you're new to smart contract development, head to Developing Smart Contracts to learn about creating a new project and compiling your contracts.

    To keep your system secure, you should always use the installed code as-is, and neither copy-paste it from online sources, nor modify it yourself. The library is designed so that only the contracts and functions you use are deployed, so you don't need to worry about it needlessly increasing gas costs.

    Learn More

    The guides in the docs site will teach about different concepts, and how to use the related contracts that OpenZeppelin Contracts provides:

    • Access Control: decide who can perform each of the actions on your system.
    • Tokens: create tradeable assets or collectives, and distribute them via Crowdsales.
    • Gas Station Network: let your users interact with your contracts without having to pay for gas themselves.
    • Utilities: generic useful tools, including non-overflowing math, signature verification, and trustless paying systems.

    The full API is also thoroughly documented, and serves as a great reference when developing your smart contract application. You can also ask for help or follow Contracts's development in the community forum.

    Finally, you may want to take a look at the guides on our blog, which cover several common use cases and good practices.. The following articles provide great background reading, though please note, some of the referenced tools have changed as the tooling in the ecosystem continues to rapidly evolve.


    This project is maintained by OpenZeppelin, and developed following our high standards for code quality and security. OpenZeppelin Contracts is meant to provide tested and community-audited code, but please use common sense when doing anything that deals with real money! We take no responsibility for your implementation decisions and any security problems you might experience.

    The core development principles and strategies that OpenZeppelin Contracts is based on include: security in depth, simple and modular code, clarity-driven naming conventions, comprehensive unit testing, pre-and-post-condition sanity checks, code consistency, and regular audits.

    The latest audit was done on October 2018 on version 2.0.0.

    We have a bug bounty program on Immunefi. Please report any security issues you find through the Immunefi dashboard, or reach out to

    Critical bug fixes will be backported to past major releases.


    OpenZeppelin Contracts exists thanks to its contributors. There are many ways you can participate and help build high quality software. Check out the contribution guide!


    OpenZeppelin Contracts is released under the MIT License.


    npm i @openzeppelin/contracts-upgradeable

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