@gramex/insighttree

3.2.0 • Public • Published

@gramex/insighttree

Insight Tree breaks down a metric into a hierarchy (tree) and highlights the insights from that metric.

Example

When a metric (e.g. sales) fails to meet its target, it's important to understand why.

Usually, we start by looking for the biggest gap. Which city? Which product? Which channel? Where is the largest gap?

But under-performance in one city may be offset by a over-performance in another city. So we need to drill down to the next level. And the next.

Insight Tree automates this drill-down. It combs the hierarchy to highlight the most surprising impact.

Here's a sample output:

Example

Installation

Install via npm:

npm install @gramex/insighttree@3

Use locally as an ES module:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="./node_modules/@gramex/insighttree/dist/insighttree.css" />
<script type="module">
  import { insightTree } from "./node_modules/@gramex/insighttree/dist/insighttree.js";
</script>

Use locally as a script:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="./node_modules/@gramex/insighttree/dist/insighttree.css" />
<script src="./node_modules/@gramex/insighttree/dist/insighttree.min.js"></script>
<script>
  gramex.insightTree(...)
</script>

Use via CDN as an ES Module:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/@gramex/insighttree@3/dist/insighttree.css" />
<script type="module">
  import { insightTree } from "https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/@gramex/insighttree@3/dist/insighttree.js";
</script>

Use via CDN as a script:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/@gramex/insighttree@3/dist/insighttree.css" />
<script src="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/@gramex/insighttree@3/dist/insighttree.min.js"></script>
<script>
  gramex.insightTree(...)
</script>

Data structure

insightTree() needs an array of objects with

  1. At least 1 variable to group by (e.g. country, product, channel)
  2. At least 1 metric to sum (e.g. sales, target).

For example:

sales-data.json

city product channel sales target gap
Aden Clock Online 61 76 -15
Aden Clock Retail 66 83 -17
Aden Drone Online 33 52 -19
Aden Drone Retail 105 90 15
... ... ... ... ... ...

Create an insight tree from data

To create a basic insight tree with this data, construct the insightTree() as follows:

Example

Source code

Output:

This tree explores the City > Product > Channel hierarchy for the biggest insight, based on:

  1. Impact: As defined by the sales - target gap
  2. Surprise: How "hidden" is it? That is, if you visited the highest impact node, then the next highest in the tree, and so on, how long would it take to find this node?

It shows the insight rank of each node. #1 has the highest Impact x Surprise. #2 is the next, and so on.

Click any row to expand or collapse it.

Tree data structure

insightTree() returns an object with a .tree property. This is an array of objects, one for each row of the tree to render. The object keys are:

  • All groups, e.g. city, product, channel
  • All metrics, e.g. sales, target
  • Additional Symbol keys that you can import { CHILDREN, DESCENDANT_COUNT, GROUP, IMPACT, LEVEL, RANK, SURPRISE }
    • [CHILDREN]: array of child nodes
    • [DESCENDANT_COUNT]: number of descendants
    • [GROUP]: current group value. For row[LEVEL] == 1, this is the city, for row[LEVEL] == 2, this is the product, etc.
    • INDEX: index of the node in the data (e.g. 0, 1, 2, ...)
    • [IMPACT]: normalized value of the impact metric. 1 indicates the highest value, 0 indicates the lowest value.
    • [LEVEL]: level of indentation. 0 is the root node, 1 is the first child, 2 is the second child, etc.
    • [PARENT]: link to parent element. undefined for the root node.
    • [RANK]: rank of the insight (row[SURPRISE] * row[IMPACT]). The highest ranked insight is the most surprising and impactful.
    • [SURPRISE]: how surprising is the value of this node (0-100%). 0% indicates you would have found this node immediately traversing by rank. 100% indicates it is the last node you would have found.
    • [NODE]: the DOM node for the row. This is undefined until the tree is rendered.
    • [OPEN]: whether the node is open (shows children) or closed. This is undefined until the tree is rendered.
    • [SHOWN]: whether the node is shown or hidden. This is undefined until the tree is rendered.

Expand or collapse levels

Call tree.update({ level: 1 }) to show the level 0 (root node) and level 1 (children of root node):

Example

Move the slider to show more or fewer levels.

Source code

Expand or collapse insights

Call tree.update({ rank: 4 }) to show the top 4 insights.

Example

Source code

This tree:

  • Controls the number of insights. Increasing the slider shows more gaps. Decreasing shows fewer gaps.
  • Highlights the current gap. The row in orange is the current insight.

Show a specific insight

Call tree.update({ rank: 4 }, { exactRank: true }) to show just the 4th insight.

Example

Source code

This tree:

  • Controls the number of insights. Increasing the slider shows more gaps. Decreasing shows fewer gaps.
  • Highlights the current gap. The row in orange is the current insight.

Expand or collapse deep insights

Call tree.update(1, { leaf: true }) to show first top "deep" insight (i.e. at the deepest segment -- a leaf node).

Example

Source code

Move the slider to show the next or previous deep insight - highlighted in orange.

Reorder insights

By default, the order if insights is based on SURPRISE * IMPACT. Pass a rankBy parameter to change this.

For example:

  • insightTree({ ..., rankBy: "sales" }) ranks insights by the "sales" column (highest first)
  • insightTree({ ..., rankBy: "-sales" }) ranks insights by the "sales" column (lowest first)
  • insightTree({ ..., rankBy: ({sales, target}) => target - sales }) ranks insights by the gap (highest target - sales gap first)
  • insightTree({ ..., rankBy: (row) => row[IMPACT] * row[SURPRISE] }) is the default

Example

Source code

Show or hide nodes

Call tree.show((row, node) => ...) to expand or collapse each node in the tree based on a rule.

It accepts a function that returns true to expand the node, false to collapse it. It takes 2 parameters:

  1. row: an object containing all group keys and metrics for the row
  2. node: the DOM node for the row

For example, tree.show((row) => row[LEVEL] == 0 || row[GROUP] == 'Clock') to expand all rows of level 0, and any row with the group "Bonn".

Example

Source code

tree.show((row, node) => ..., options) accepts a second options parameter:

  • openAncestors: if true, opens all ancestors of the matched nodes. Default: true
  • showSiblings: if true, shows all siblings of the matched nodes. Default: false
  • hiddenClass: class to add to hidden nodes. Default: "insight-hidden"
  • closedClass: class to add to closed nodes. Default: "insight-closed"

For example, tree.show((row) => row.city == 'Bonn' && row.product == 'Clock' && row[LEVEL] == 2, { showSiblings: true }) to show all Bonn Clock sales and its siblings.

Example

Source code

Expand or collapse nodes

Call tree.toggle(node, true) to expand a specific node. .toggle(node, false) collapses it. .toggle(node) toggles it.

Note: This does NOT automatically open or show the ancestors. Use show() for that.

Example

Source code

Update classes

Call tree.classed(cls, (row, node) => ...) to add or remove a class to each node in the tree based on a rule.

It accepts a function that returns true to add the class, false to remove it. It takes 2 parameters:

  1. row: an object containing all group keys and metrics for the row
  2. node: the DOM node for the row

For example, tree.classed('insight-current', (row) => row[LEVEL] == 0 || row[GROUP] == 'Clock') to highlight all rows of level 0, and any row with the group "Clock".

Example

Source code

Style the tree

insightTree() adds classes and attributes to each row. A may have these classes:

  • .insight-current on current ranked insight. Default style: background-color: ##ffc107. Set to background-color: gold to color it gold.
  • .insight-highlight on higher ranked insights. Default style: font-weight: bold. Set to font-weight: normal; color: red to color it red.
  • .insight-hidden on lower ranked insights. Default style: display: none. Set to display: block; color: lightgrey to show them in gray.
  • .insight-closed on collapsed insights. Any child .insight-toggle is styled as
    • .insight-toggle:before { content: "▶"; } when expanded
    • This is rotated 90 degrees clockwise when collapsed (like ▼)

A row always has these attributes:

  • [data-insight-level]: level of indentation. Default style: cursor: pointer
  • [data-insight-rank]: rank of the insight. 1 is the highest ranked insight. No default style.

Note: You can rename the "Total" group to "All" by passing insightTree({ ..., totalGroup: "All" }).

Download arrow.svg to the same folder and add this below <link rel="stylesheet" ...>:

<style>
  .insight-current {
    background-color: yellow;
  }
  .insight-highlight {
    color: red;
  }
  .insight-toggle:before {
    content: url("arrow.svg");
  }
</style>

Example

Source code

Render custom trees

insightTree() accepts a render(el, { tree }) function. This can be used to render the tree in any way.

For example, to render the tree as a table, add this just after impact: ...

    render: (el, tree) => el.innerHTML = /* html */ `
      <table>
        <thead><tr><th>#</th><th>Group</th><th>Gap</th><th>Sales</th><th>Target</th></tr></thead>
        <tbody>
          ${tree.map(({ sales, target, ...row }) => /* html */ `
            <tr data-insight-level="${row[LEVEL]}" data-insight-rank="${row[RANK]}">
              <td class="text-end">#${row[RANK]}</th>
              <td style="padding-left:${row[LEVEL] * 1.5}rem">
                <span class="insight-toggle"></span> ${row[GROUP]}
              </td>
              <td class="text-end">${sales - target}</td>
              <td class="text-end">${sales}</td>
              <td class="text-end">${target}</td>
            </tr>`).join("")}
        </tbody>
      </table>`,

Example

Source code

render(el, options) function is called with the same options as insightTree(), i.e. { data, groups, metrics, sort, impact, rankBy, totalGroup }.

options also is passed { tree } which is the tree data structure.

REMEMBER:

  • You MUST add data-insight-level="${row[LEVEL]} to each row
  • You MUST add data-insight-rank=${row[RANK]}" to each row
  • Indent based on row[LEVEL]
  • Add a <span class="insight-toggle"></span> inside the row to show the expand / collapse icon

React usage

Use the following pattern when using `network()`` with React:

const { useEffect } = React;
function App() {
  useEffect(() => insightTree("#tree", { ... }), []);
  return React.createElement("div", { id: "#tree" });
}
const root = ReactDOM.createRoot(document.querySelector("#root"));
root.render(React.createElement(React.StrictMode, null, React.createElement(App)));

Example

Source code

Integrating with other libraries

When rendering the tree, you can use any JavaScript function, including from libraries like d3 or Bootstrap.

For example, add Bootstrap to at the start of your HTML:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/bootstrap@5/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css" />

At the start of the <script type="module">, add a D3 color scale:

import { scaleLinear } from "https://cdn.skypack.dev/d3-scale@4";
const color = scaleLinear().domain([0.5, 1, 1.2]).range(["red", "yellow", "lime"]);

Now, in the render() function, replace <table> with <table class="table w-auto"> to style the table with Bootstrap.

Also replace:

<td class="text-end">${sales - target}</td>

... with a cell that is colored based on the sales/target ratio:

<td class="text-end" style="background-color:${color(sales / target)};color:black">${sales - target}</td>

Example

Source code

Custom aggregation

groups, metrics and sort can be used to flexibly aggregate the data.

Given this data:

a b x y z
a1 b1 1 2 3
a1 b2 4 5 6
a1 b3 7 8 9
a2 b1 10 11 12
a2 b2 13 14 15
a2 b3 16 17 18

GROUP BY: a. CALCULATE: SUM(x), SUM(y), and SUM(z):

  groups: ["a"],
  metrics: ["x", "y", "z"],
LEVEL GROUP a x y z
0 51 57 63
1 a1 a1 12 15 18
1 a2 a2 39 42 45

GROUP BY: a, last letter of b. CALCULATE: SUM(x):

  groups: { a: "a", b: (row) => row.b.slice(-1) },
  metrics: ["x"],
LEVEL GROUP a b x
0 51
1 a1 a1 12
2 1 a1 1 1
2 2 a1 2 4
2 3 a1 3 7
1 a2 a2 39
2 1 a2 1 10
2 2 a2 2 13
2 3 a2 3 16

GROUP BY: a. CALCULATE: SUM(x), AVG(y), the first value of z, and x - y:

  groups: ["a"],
  metrics: {
    x: "sum",
    y: "avg",
    z: (data) => data[0].z,
    diff: (data, result) => result.x - result.y,
  },
LEVEL a x y z diff
0 51 9.5 6 41.5
1 a1 12 5 3 7
1 a2 39 14 3 25

GROUP BY: a, b. CALCULATE: SUM(x). SORT BY: x descending:

  groups: ["a", "b"],
  metrics: ["x"],
  sort: "-x",
LEVEL a b x
0 51
1 a2 39
2 a2 b3 16
2 a2 b2 13
2 a2 b1 10
1 a1 12
2 a1 b3 7
2 a1 b2 4
2 a1 b1 1

GROUPS a, b. SUBTOTAL: SUM(x). SORT BY: a by x asc, b by the last letter b asc:

  groups: ["a", "b"],
  metrics: ["x"],
  sort: { a: "+x", b: (m, n) => (m.b.slice(-1) < n.b.slice(-1) ? -1 : 1) },
LEVEL a b x
0 51
1 a1 12
2 a1 b1 1
2 a1 b2 4
2 a1 b3 7
1 a2 39
2 a2 b1 10
2 a2 b2 13
2 a2 b3 16

API

See API documentation

insightTree({ ... }) accepts the following parameters:

  • selector: the CSS selector to render the tree into.
  • data: an array of objects, e.g. [{"a": "A1", "b": "B1", "x": 10, "y": 20}, ...]. Each object is a "row". Each key (e.g. "a") is a "column".
  • groups: the levels of the hierarchy, e.g. ["a", "b"]. This can be:
    • a list of existing column names, e.g. ["a", "b"]
    • an object of new column names and function(row) to calculate them. E.g.
      • {"First name": ({ name }) => name.split(" ")[0]}
      • {"City type": ({ sales }) => sales > 1000 ? "Big" : "Small"}
  • metrics: the numbers to aggregate, e.g. ["x", "y"]. This can be:
    • a list of existing column names, e.g. ["x", "y"]. By default, these columns will converted to numbers and summed
    • an object of existing column names and aggregations, e.g. {"x": "sum", "y": "avg"}. Values can be: "sum", "count", "avg", "min", or "max".
    • an object of new column names and functions(rows) to calculate them. E.g.
      • {"First date recorded": (rows) => rows[0].date
      • {"Earliest date": (rows) => Math.min(...rows.map(({date}) => date))
  • impact: optional impact metric to rank insights by. The tree is sorted by this metric. The first entry has rank 1, the second has rank 2, and so on. This can be:
    • an existing column name, e.g. "x". Use "+x" to sort ascending (default) and "-x" to sort descending. (+/- works only for numbers)
    • a function, e.g. ({ sales, target }) => sales - target. The lowest sales - target (i.e. sales achievement) will be highlighted first
  • sort: optional ways of sorting each level, e.g. "+x". This can be:
    • an existing column name, e.g. "x". Use "+x" to sort ascending (default) and "-x" to sort descending. (+/- works only for numbers)
    • an object of existing column names and sorting columns, e.g. {"a": "+x", "b": "-y"}.
    • an object of existing column names and sorting functions, e.g. {"a": (a, b) => a.x < b.x ? +1 : -1}
  • render: a function renders the tree. The function is called with:
    • el: the node to be rendered (same as the selector)
    • tree: an array of objects, one for each row of the tree to render. See Tree data structure
    • options: the options passed to insightTree(): selection, data, groups, metrics, impact
  • totalGroup: name of the total row's GROUP. Defaults to "Total"

It returns a tree object has the following methods:

  • update({ rank, level }) updates the tree to expand / collapse to a specified rank and/or level. For example:
    • tree.update({ rank: 5 }) shows the top 5 insights
    • tree.update({ level: 2 }) shows the level 1 (root) + level 2 (child) rows
    • tree.update({ rank: 5, level: 2 }) shows the top 5 insights AND all level 1 + level 2 rows
    • tree.update({ rank: 5 }, { exactRank: true }) shows the 5th insight only
    • tree.update({ rank: 5 }, { showSiblings: true }) shows the top 5 insights and all siblings of open nodes
  • toggle(node, force) expands or collapses the specified node. For example:
    • tree.toggle(document.querySelector("[data-insight-level=0]")) toggles the root node
    • tree.toggle(document.querySelector("[data-insight-level=0]"), true) expands the root node
    • tree.toggle(document.querySelector("[data-insight-level=0]"), true) collapses the root node

Release notes

  • 3.2.0: 15 May 2024. Expand update options
    • tree.update({ rank }, { exactRank: true }) shows only the specified rank, not previous ranks
    • tree.update({ rank: n }, { leaf: true }) shows the nth ranked LEAF node, skipping parents. An alias for tree.updateLeaf(n).
    • tree.updateLeaf(n) deprecated
  • 3.1.0: 28 Apr 2024. insightTree(el) is re-entrant. You can call it multiple times on the same element.
  • 3.0.0: 13 Dec 2023. Rewrite with more flexible API.
    • .show() and .classed() introduced
    • _xxx properties renamed to [xxx] symbols to avoid conflict
    • Add new properties: SURPRISE, CHILDREN, PARENT, DESCENDANT_COUNT, NODE, OPEN, SHOWN
    • Add showSiblings option to .show() to show siblings of matched nodes
    • Backward incompatible changes from 2.x
      • Instead of .filter(fn), use .show(fn, { openAncestors: false })
      • insighttree().data renamed to insighttree().tree
      • rankBy renamed to impact
      • Default rank order is SURPRISE * IMPACT not rankBy
      • render(el, tree, { ...options }) is now replaced with render(el, { tree, ...options })
  • 2.2.0: 8 Oct 2023. insightTree().updateLeaf(n) expands the tree to show only the top "deep" insight
  • 2.1.0: 13 Sep 2023.
    • insightTree().toggle(node) expands/collapses a specific node
    • insightTree().filter(filter) expands/collapses the tree
  • 2.0.0: 17 Jun 2023.
    • insightTree().update({ level: n }) expands the tree to level n
    • import "insighttree.js" provides a bundled ESM script
    • Backward-incompatible changes from 1.x:
      • Call gramex.insightTree(), not gramex.insighttree.insightTree()
      • Pass insightTree(selector, options), not insightTree({ selector, ...options })
      • insighttree does not export a format object. Use Intl.NumberFormat instead
  • 1.1.0: 13 Jun 2023. rankBy supports column names with + and - prefixes. E.g. { rankBy: "-fees" } highlights the highest fees first, then the next highest, and so on.
  • 1.0.0: 6 Apr 2023. Initial release

Authors

Anand S s.anand@gramener.com

License

MIT

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Version

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License

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