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A routing library for Dojo 2 applications.


To use @dojo/routing, install the package along with its required peer dependencies:

npm install @dojo/routing

# peer dependencies
npm install @dojo/core
npm install @dojo/has
npm install @dojo/shim
npm install @dojo/widget-core


Widgets are a fundamental concept for any Dojo 2 application and as such Dojo 2 Routing provides a collection of components that integrate directly with existing widgets within an application. These components enable widgets to be registered against a route without requiring any knowledge of the Router. Routing in a Dojo 2 application consists of:

  • Outlet widget wrappers that are assigned a specific outlet key and represent the view for a specific route
  • a configuration of individual Routes that map paths to outlet keys
  • a Router that resolves a Route based on the current path
  • a History provider that notifies the Router of path changes
  • a Registry that injects the Router into the widget ecosystem

Route Configuration

Application routes are registered using a RouteConfig, which defines a route's path, the associated outlet, and nested child RouteConfigs. The full routes are recursively constructed from the nested route structure.

Example routing configuration:

import { RouteConfig } from '@dojo/routing/interfaces';

const config: RouteConfig[] = [
		path: 'foo',
		outlet: 'root',
		children: [
				path: 'bar',
				outlet: 'bar'
				path: 'baz',
				outlet: 'baz',
				children: [
						path: 'qux',
						outlet: 'qux',

This configuration would register the following routes and outlets:

Route Outlet
/foo root
/foo/bar bar
/foo/baz baz
/foo/baz/qux qux

Path Parameters

Path parameters can be defined in a path using curly braces in the path attribute of a RouteConfig. Parameters will match any segment and the value of that segment is made available to matching outlets via the mapParams Outlet options. The parameters provided to child outlets will include any parameters from matching parent routes.

const config = [
		path: 'foo/{foo}',
		outlet: 'foo'

For routes with path parameters, a map of default params can be specified for each route. These parameters are used as a fallback when generating a link from an outlet without specifying parameters, or when parameters do not exist in the current route.

const config = [
		path: 'foo/{foo}',
		outlet: 'foo',
		defaultParams: {
			foo: 'bar'

A default route can be specified using the optional configuration property defaultRoute, which will be used if the current route does not match a registered route.

const config = [
		path: 'foo/{foo}',
		outlet: 'foo',
		defaultRoute: true

Callbacks for onEnter and onExit can be set on the route configuration, these callbacks get called when an outlet is entered and exited.

const config = [
		path: 'foo/{foo}',
		outlet: 'foo',
		onEnter: () => {
			console.log('outlet foo entered');
		onExit: () => {
			console.log('outlet foo exited');


A Router registers a route configuration which is passed to the router on construction:

const router = new Router(config);

The router will automatically be registered with a HashHistory history manager. This can be overridden by passing a different history manager as the second parameter.

import { MemoryHistory } from '@dojo/routing/MemoryHistory';

const router = new Router(config, MemoryHistory);

Once the router has been created with the application route configuration, it needs to be made available to all the components within your application. This is done using a Registry from @dojo/widget-core/Registry and defining an Injector that contains the router instance as the payload. This Injector is defined using a known key, by default the key is router but this can be overridden if desired.

import { Registry } from '@dojo/widget-core/Registry';
import { Injector } from '@dojo/widget-core/Injector';

const registry = new Registry();

// Assuming we have the router instance available
registry.defineInjector('router', new Injector(router));

Finally, the registry needs to be made available to all widgets within the application by setting it as a property to the application's top-level Projector instance.

const projector = new Projector();
projector.setProperties({ registry });

History Managers

Routing comes with three history managers for monitoring and changing the navigation state, HashHistory, StateHistory and MemoryHistory. By default the HashHistory is used, however, this can be overridden by passing a different HistoryManager when creating the Router.

const router = new Router(config, MemoryHistory);
Hash History

The hash-based manager uses the fragment identifier to store navigation state and is the default manager used within @dojo/routing.

import { Router } from '@dojo/routing/Router';
import { HashHistory } from '@dojo/routing/history/HashHistory';

const router = new Router(config, HashHistory);

The history manager has current getter, set(path: string) and prefix(path: string) APIs. The HashHistory class assumes the global object is a browser window object, but an explicit object can be provided. The manager uses window.location.hash and adds an event listener for the hashchange event. The current getter returns the current path, without a # prefix.

State History

The state history uses the browser's history API, pushState() and replaceState(), to add or modify history entries. The state history manager requires server-side support to work effectively.

Memory History

The MemoryHistory does not rely on any browser API but keeps its own internal path state. It should not be used in production applications but is useful for testing routing.

import { Router } from '@dojo/routing/Router';
import { MemoryHistory } from '@dojo/routing/history/MemoryHistory';

const router = new Router(config, MemoryHistory);

Router Context Injection

The RouterInjector module exports a helper function, registerRouterInjector, that combines the instantiation of a Router instance, registering route configuration and defining injector in the provided registry. The router instance is returned.

import { Registry } from '@dojo/widget-core/Registry';
import { registerRouterInjector } from '@dojo/routing/RoutingInjector';

const registry = new Registry();
const router = registerRouterInjector(config, registry);

The defaults can be overridden using RouterInjectorOptions:

import { Registry } from '@dojo/widget-core/Registry';
import { registerRouterInjector } from '@dojo/routing/RoutingInjector';
import { MemoryHistory } from './history/MemoryHistory';

const registry = new Registry();
const history = new MemoryHistory();

const router = registerRouterInjector(config, registry, { history, key: 'custom-router-key' });


The primary concept for the routing integration is an outlet, a unique identifier associated with the registered application route. Dojo 2 Widgets can then be configured with these outlet identifiers using the Outlet higher order component. Outlet returns a new widget that can be used like any other widget within a render method, e.g. w(MyFooOutlet, { }).

Properties can be passed to an Outlet widget in the same way as if the original widget was being used. However, all properties are made optional to allow the properties to be injected using the mapParams function described below.

The number of widgets that can be mapped to a single outlet identifier is not restricted. All configured widgets for a single outlet will be rendered when the route associated to the outlet is matched by the router and the outlets are part of the current widget hierarchy.

The following example configures a stateless widget with an outlet called foo. The resulting FooOutlet can be used in a widgets render in the same way as any other Dojo 2 Widget.

import { Outlet } from '@dojo/routing/Outlet';
import { MyViewWidget } from './MyViewWidget';

const FooOutlet = Outlet(MyViewWidget, 'foo');

Example usage of FooOutlet, where the widget will only be rendered when the route registered against outlet foo is matched.

class App extends WidgetBase {
	protected render(): DNode {
		return v('div', [
			w(FooOutlet, {})

Outlet Component Types

When registering an outlet a different widget can be configured for each match type of a route:

Type Description
index This is an exact match for the registered route. E.g. Navigating to foo/bar with a registered route foo/bar.
main Any match other than an index match, for example, foo/bar would partially match foo/bar/qux, but only if foo/bar/qux was also a registered route. Otherwise, it would be an ERROR match.
error When a partial match occurs but there is no match for the next section of the route.

To do this, instead of passing a widget as the first argument to the Outlet, use the OutletComponents object.

import { MyViewWidget, MyErrorWidget } from './MyWidgets';

const fooWidgets: OutletComponents = {
	main: MyViewWidget,
	error: MyErrorWidget

const FooOutlet = Outlet(fooWidgets, 'foo');

It is important to note that a widget registered against match type error will not be used if the outlet also has a widget registered for match type index.

Outlet Options

Outlet Options of mapParams, onEnter, onExit, and key can be passed as an optional third argument to an Outlet.

Map Parameters

When a widget is configured for an outlet it is possible to provide a callback function that is used to inject properties that will be available during render lifecycle of the widget.

mapParams(type: 'error | index | main', location: string, params: {[key: string]: any}, router: Router)
Argument Description
type The MatchType that caused the outlet to render
params Key/Value object of the params that were parsed from the matched route
router The router instance that can be used to provide functions that go to other routes/outlets

The following example uses mapParams to inject an onClose function that will go to the route registered against the other-outlet route and id property extracted from params in the MyViewWidget properties:

const mapParams = (options: MapParamsOptions) {
	const { type, params, router } = options;

	return {
		onClose() {
			// This creates a link for another outlet and sets the path
		id: params.id

const FooOutlet = Outlet(MyViewWidget, 'foo', { mapParams });

The key is the identifier used to locate the router from the registry, throughout the routing library this defaults to router.

Global Error Outlet

Whenever a match type of error is registered a global outlet is automatically added to the matched outlets called errorOutlet. This outlet can be used to render a widget for any unknown routes.

const ErrorOutlet = Outlet(ErrorWidget, 'errorOutlet');


The Link component is a wrapper around an a DOM element that enables consumers to specify an outlet to create a link to. It is also possible to use a static route by setting the isOutlet property to false.

If the generated link requires specific path or query parameters that are not in the route, they can be passed via the params property.

import { Link } from '@dojo/routing/Link';

render() {
	return v('div', [
		w(Link, { to: 'foo', params: { foo: 'bar' }}, [ 'Link Text' ]),
		w(Link, { to: '#/static-route', isOutlet: false, [ 'Other Link Text' ])

All the standard VNodeProperties are available for the Link component as they would be creating an a DOM Element using v() with @dojo/widget-core.

How do I contribute?

We appreciate your interest! Please see the Dojo 2 Meta Repository for the Contributing Guidelines.

Code Style

This repository uses prettier for code styling rules and formatting. A pre-commit hook is installed automatically and configured to run prettier against all staged files as per the configuration in the project's package.json.

An additional npm script to run prettier (with write set to true) against all src and test project files is available by running:

npm run prettier


To start working with this package, clone the repository and run npm install.

In order to build the project run grunt dev or grunt dist.


Test cases MUST be written using Intern using the Object test interface and Assert assertion interface.

90% branch coverage MUST be provided for all code submitted to this repository, as reported by istanbul’s combined coverage results for all supported platforms.

To test locally in node run:

grunt test

To test against browsers with a local selenium server run:

grunt test:local

To test against BrowserStack or Sauce Labs run:

grunt test:browserstack


grunt test:saucelabs

Licensing information

© 2018 JS Foundation & contributors. New BSD license.




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