3p

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    3p: Progressive Triangle Streams

    Progressive triangle streams are an implementation of Hugues Hoppe's progressive meshes with minor modifications favoring fast decoding over visual fidelity. The format is flexible and different codecs can choose different strategies for splitting vertices. This module documents progressive triangle streams and implements reference codecs for the binary and JSON formats. The intention of this file format is to provide a basic container format for experimenting with different strategies for performing edge collapses on meshes, and to provide a common language for processing progressive mesh data.

    Why use 3p?

    Progressive meshes have two advantages over standard mesh representations like indexed face lists:

    1. They are typically much smaller. In a binary 3P file, the topology data of the mesh uses 1/4 as much space as in a binary indexed triangle mesh and up to 1/10 as much space as an ASCII encoded equivalent.
    2. They can be loaded incrementally. It is possible to process a truncated 3P file and recover an approximate geometry immediately. This decreases the amount of time spent waiting for geometry to load.

    Like the PLY file format, 3P files can specify arbitrary vertex and face data. 3P is also a lossless encoding, so attributes like vertex positions are not truncated in intermediate representations. 3P can be combined with standard HTTP compression schemes like gzip for further size reductions.

    Other implementations

    Reference Codec API

    These reference codecs are installable via npm:

    npm install 3p
    

    Once installed, they can be required and used as CommonJS modules.

    Note Reference codecs are not optimized.

    Encoder

    JSON

    require('3p/encode-json')(vertexCount, cells[, vertexAttributes, cellAttributes, vertexTypes, cellTypes])

    Compresses a triangulated mesh into a JSON formatted progressive triangle stream.

    • cells is a list of triangles, each encoded as a list of 3 vertex indices
    • vertexAttributes is an optional array of vertex attributes
    • cellAttributes is an optional array of per-face attributes

    Returns A 3PJ encoded mesh object

    Binary

    require('3p/encode-binary')(vertexCount, cells[, vertexAttributes, cellAttributes, vertexTypes, cellTypes])

    Same interface as above, except returns a node.js Buffer object storing a binary 3PB file.

    Decoder

    JSON

    require('3p/decode-json')(json)

    Decodes a JSON formatted 3PJ object.

    • json is a plain old JavaScript object storing the parsed 3PJ data

    Returns An object representing the mesh with with the following properties:

    • cells is an array storing the faces of the mesh
    • vertexAttributes is an array of vertex attributes
    • cellAttributes is an array of cell attributes

    Binary

    require('3p/decode-binary')(buffer)

    Same as above, except takes a binary 3PB file instead of JSON.

    JSON and binary conversion

    require('3p/json-to-binary')(json)

    Converts a JSON 3PJ file to a binary 3PB buffer

    • json is a 3PJ javascript object

    Returns A Buffer representing a binary 3PB file

    require('3p/binary-to-json')(buffer)

    Converts a binary 3PB file to a JSON 3PJ object

    • buffer is a Buffer encoding a 3PB object

    Returns A JSON 3PJ object

    Format description

    Progressive triangle streams encode 3D triangulated meshes as a sequence of vertex split operations. Progressive triangle streams can have any number of vertex and/or face attributes, and can be truncated to produce approximations of the initial geometry. Progressive triangle streams support two distinct formats: a reference JSON format for debugging and a binary format. These formats store equivalent information.

    JSON format (.3PJ)

    For debugging purposes, 3P supports a JSON format. The JSON format for a progressive triangle stream contains the same data as above. Each 3P JSON object has 3 fields with the following data:

    • The file header, storing:
      • version - a string representing the version of the 3P file in semver format
      • vertexCount - the number of vertices in the stream
      • cellCount - the number of cells in the stream
      • vertexAttributeTypes - an array of types for each vertex attribute
      • cellAttributeTypes - an array of types for each cell attribute
    • An initial triangulated mesh, with 4 arrays:
      • cells - an array of 3 tuples of integers representing the vertex indices for each triangle
      • vertexAttributes - an array of arrays of vertex attributes
      • cellAttributes - an array of arrays of cell attributes
    • An array of vertex split operations, each having the following properties:
      • baseVertex - the vertex to split
      • attributes - attributes for newly created vertex
      • left - index of left vertex in 1-ring around base vertex
      • leftOrientation - orientation of left face
      • leftAttributes - attributes for left face
      • right - index of right face
      • rightOrientation - orientation of right face
      • rightAttributes - attributes for right face

    Each type declaration should have the following data:

    • name which is an ascii string storing the name of the type
    • count which is the size of the type value
    • type a string encoding the type of the attribute

    The possible values for type are as follows:

    • uint8 an unsigned 8 bit integer
    • uint16 an unsigned 16 bit integer
    • uint32 an unsigned 32 bit integer
    • int8
    • int16
    • int32
    • float32
    • float64

    JSON formatted progressive triangle streams should use the file extension .3PJ

    Binary format (.3PB)

    • Network byte order
    • Prefer .3PB file extension
    struct S3PBFile {
      uint8[4]           "3PB\n"
      S3PBHeader         header
      S3PBComplex        initialComplex
      S3PBVertexSplit[]  vertexSplits
    }
    
    struct S3PBHeader {
      uint32             splitOffset
      uint32             majorVersion
      uint32             minorVersion
      uint32             patchVersion
      uint32             vertexCount
      uint32             cellCount
      uint32             vertexAttributeCount
      uint32             cellAttributeCount
      S3PBAttribute[]    vertexAttributeTypes
      S3PBAttribute[]    cellAttributeTypes
    }
    
    struct S3PBAttribute {
      uint32             count
      S3PBAttributeType  type
      uint32             nameLength
      char[]             name
    }
    
    enum S3PBAttributeType: uint32 {
      uint8:      0
      uint16:     1
      uint32:     2
      int8:       3
      int16:      4
      int32:      5
      float32:    6
      float64:    7
    }
    
    struct S3PBComplex {
      uint32             initialVertexCount
      uint32             initialCellCount
      VertexAttribute[]  vertexAttributes
      uint32[3][]        cells
      CellAttribute[]    cellAttributes
    }
    
    struct S3PBVertexSplit {
      uint32             baseVertex
      uint8              left
      uint8              right
      VertexAttribute    attributes
      CellAttribute      leftAttributes
      CellAttribute      rightAttributes
    }
    

    Notes

    • Manifold vertices must be stored in initial complex, non-manifold vertices and their neighbors can't be split
    • In S3PBVertexSplit, the upper bit of left and right stores the orientation of the vertex
    • The lower 7 bits of left and right are an index into the neighbors of s
    • splitOffset is the start of the vertex split section in bytes
    • Attribute names are stored as ASCII text
    • Encoders must not collapse edges incident to non-manifold or boundary vertices
    • Vertices with more than 15 neighbors must not be split
    • Encoders should prioritize edge collapses with minimal visual impact on images
    • Binary decoders should gracefully handle truncated input
    • Encoders may not preserve the index of each vertex. Encoding/decoding may permute the order of cells/vertices in the mesh.
    • Encoding must preserve topology and all attributes
    • Codecs may collapse vertices in any order subject to the implementation
    • If a decoder recieves more vertices or cells than is specified in the header, then it should terminate
    • cellCount and vertexCount should describe the total number of vertices in the stream. If more vertices in the stream are encountered, the decoder may choose to continue processing additional splits
    • For each vertex split, the baseVertex must refer to a previous vertex in the stream

    Benchmarks and comparisons

    Sizes are in bytes

    Mesh JSON 3p 3p + gzip
    Stanford bunny 110361 33190 27531

    References

    TODO

    License

    Copyright 2014 Mikola Lysenko. MIT license

    Install

    npm i 3p

    DownloadsWeekly Downloads

    7

    Version

    1.0.0

    License

    MIT

    Last publish

    Collaborators

    • mikolalysenko